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Determination of Banned Azo Dyes in Leather

Ahlström, Lars-Henric LU (2007)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Azofärger är syntetiska kemikalier som används i stor utsträckning för att färga konsumtionsartiklar, t.ex. läder, textiler, mat, kosmetika. Dock kan ett fåtal av dessa färger reduktivt avspjälkas och till följd därav frigöra kancerogena aromatiska aminer. Av den orsaken har EU infört ett förbud i medlemsstaterna mot användning av potentiellt farliga azofärger i läder- och textilartiklar som vid upprepade tillfällen kan komma i kontakt med människors hud eller munhåla. Trots att majoriteten av EU-baserade företag redan har tagit bort misstänkta azofärger och funnit mindre farliga alternativ krävs en tillförlitlig analysmetod för att kontrollera att förbudet efterföljs. Den i dag mest använda... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Azofärger är syntetiska kemikalier som används i stor utsträckning för att färga konsumtionsartiklar, t.ex. läder, textiler, mat, kosmetika. Dock kan ett fåtal av dessa färger reduktivt avspjälkas och till följd därav frigöra kancerogena aromatiska aminer. Av den orsaken har EU infört ett förbud i medlemsstaterna mot användning av potentiellt farliga azofärger i läder- och textilartiklar som vid upprepade tillfällen kan komma i kontakt med människors hud eller munhåla. Trots att majoriteten av EU-baserade företag redan har tagit bort misstänkta azofärger och funnit mindre farliga alternativ krävs en tillförlitlig analysmetod för att kontrollera att förbudet efterföljs. Den i dag mest använda analysmetoden för detta syfte är en officiell tysk sådan (DIN 53316). Denna metod är dock förknippad med ett flertal nackdelar, inklusive dålig analysnoggrannhet och användandet av hälsovådliga organiska lösningsmedel.



De i avhandlingen ingående artiklarna beskriver utvecklingen av förbättrade analysmetoder för bestämning av halten förbjudna azofärger i läder. Intentionen har varit att effektivisera provupparbetningen genom att använda olika extraktionstekniker, inklusive överkritisk vätskeextraktion (eng. Supercritical-fluid extraction), vätskeextraktion med uppvärmning med hjälp av mikrovågor (eng. Microwave-assisted extraction) eller ultraljud (eng. Ultrasound-assisted extraction), samt extraktion med hjälp av polymerbelagda (polydimetylsiloxan) omrörstavar (eng. Stir-bar sorptive extraction). Samtliga av de utvecklade analysmetoderna påvisade bättre analysnoggrannhet jämfört med den tyska DIN-metoden, och i synnerhet då den externa kalibreringen ersattes med standardtillsatsmetodik vid kvantifieringsförfarandet. (Less)
Abstract
Dyes are commercially indispensable and the expanding industry offers a complete palette of colors. Azo dyes constitute the largest chemical class of synthetic dyes because of their versatility, low price, and ease of production. These dyes may, however, pose health risk to humans due to formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic aromatic amines upon reductive cleavage of their azo groups (-N=N-). Therefore, the EU has introduced a ban on the marketing and use of certain azo dyes in textile and leather goods.



The appended papers present analytical procedures for determination of banned azo dyes in leather. The main foci in the development of these procedures was enhancement of sample preparation by employing diverse... (More)
Dyes are commercially indispensable and the expanding industry offers a complete palette of colors. Azo dyes constitute the largest chemical class of synthetic dyes because of their versatility, low price, and ease of production. These dyes may, however, pose health risk to humans due to formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic aromatic amines upon reductive cleavage of their azo groups (-N=N-). Therefore, the EU has introduced a ban on the marketing and use of certain azo dyes in textile and leather goods.



The appended papers present analytical procedures for determination of banned azo dyes in leather. The main foci in the development of these procedures was enhancement of sample preparation by employing diverse instrumentation-based techniques, including supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). Despite extensive optimization, inaccurate results were obtained when quantification was performed by means of common external standard calibration. Standard additions of the corresponding azo dyes turned out to be a feasible way to tackle the problem with systematic errors. However, the usefulness of the developed standard addition methodology relies on knowledge of, and access to, the azo dyes present in the leather. Nevertheless, all developed procedures proved superior, in terms of accuracy, to the prevailing German standard (i.e. DIN 53316) regardless of quantification method employed. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Dr Svensmark, Bo, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Analytisk kemi, Analytical chemistry, extraction, azo dyes, aromatic amines
publisher
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University
defense location
Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, lecture hall B, Sölvegatan 39, Lund, Sweden
defense date
2007-03-02 13:15
external identifiers
  • Scopus:35048884048
ISBN
978-91-7422-147-3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
9b644481-735a-4fe0-bf49-5a2be1340d27 (old id 548069)
date added to LUP
2007-10-08 13:50:46
date last changed
2016-10-13 04:49:16
@misc{9b644481-735a-4fe0-bf49-5a2be1340d27,
  abstract     = {Dyes are commercially indispensable and the expanding industry offers a complete palette of colors. Azo dyes constitute the largest chemical class of synthetic dyes because of their versatility, low price, and ease of production. These dyes may, however, pose health risk to humans due to formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic aromatic amines upon reductive cleavage of their azo groups (-N=N-). Therefore, the EU has introduced a ban on the marketing and use of certain azo dyes in textile and leather goods.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The appended papers present analytical procedures for determination of banned azo dyes in leather. The main foci in the development of these procedures was enhancement of sample preparation by employing diverse instrumentation-based techniques, including supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). Despite extensive optimization, inaccurate results were obtained when quantification was performed by means of common external standard calibration. Standard additions of the corresponding azo dyes turned out to be a feasible way to tackle the problem with systematic errors. However, the usefulness of the developed standard addition methodology relies on knowledge of, and access to, the azo dyes present in the leather. Nevertheless, all developed procedures proved superior, in terms of accuracy, to the prevailing German standard (i.e. DIN 53316) regardless of quantification method employed.},
  author       = {Ahlström, Lars-Henric},
  isbn         = {978-91-7422-147-3},
  keyword      = {Analytisk kemi,Analytical chemistry,extraction,azo dyes,aromatic amines},
  language     = {eng},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x9a3bb78)},
  title        = {Determination of Banned Azo Dyes in Leather},
  year         = {2007},
}