Advanced

The biological role of the female sex hormone estrogen in the periodontium--studies on human periodontal ligament cells.

Jönsson, Daniel LU (2007) In Swed Dent J Suppl p.11-54
Abstract
Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have addressed the association between changes in levels of the female sex hormone, estrogen, and changes in the parameters of periodontitis, but the mechanism behind estrogenic effects in the periodontium is poorly understood. There are two subtypes of estrogen receptors (ER), ERalpha and ERbeta. The objectives of the present studies were to map periodontal ligament (PDL) cell ER-subtype expression patterns and to investigate their functional importance. This information is valuable for understanding the biological role of ERs in the periodontium.



METHODS: Human PDL cells were obtained from periodontal tissue explants from teeth that were extracted for orthodontic reasons.... (More)
Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have addressed the association between changes in levels of the female sex hormone, estrogen, and changes in the parameters of periodontitis, but the mechanism behind estrogenic effects in the periodontium is poorly understood. There are two subtypes of estrogen receptors (ER), ERalpha and ERbeta. The objectives of the present studies were to map periodontal ligament (PDL) cell ER-subtype expression patterns and to investigate their functional importance. This information is valuable for understanding the biological role of ERs in the periodontium.



METHODS: Human PDL cells were obtained from periodontal tissue explants from teeth that were extracted for orthodontic reasons. The progesterone receptor and ER-subtype expression patterns were studied using immunocytochemistry. The subcellular distribution of ERbeta was determined by immunogold electron microscopy and confocal imaging using the mitochondria-selective probe MitoTracker and ERbeta immunostaining. Expression of the mitochondrial protein, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, was investigated using Western blotting. DNA and collagen synthesis was determined by measuring the incorporation of [3H]thymidine and [3H]proline, respectively. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and Creactive protein (CRP) were analyzed using ELISA. Alkaline phosphatase activity was determined colorimetrically.



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Human PDL cells possessed immunoreactivity for ERP but not ERalpha, suggesting that estrogenic effects in PDL cells are mediated via ERbeta. PDL cells expressed no immunoreactivity for progesterone receptors, which implies that progesterone does not have a direct effect on PDL cell function. Confocal imaging and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that ERbeta immunoreactivity was distributed not only in the nucleus but also in the mitochondria. Incubation with estrogen down-regulated expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, indicating functional significance for mitochondrial ER. Physiological concentrations of estrogen had no effect on PDL cell collagen and DNA synthesis but enhanced DNA synthesis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, probably reflecting a cell-typespecific ER-subtype expression pattern. The bacterial endotoxin, LPS, had no effect on the physiological properties of PDL cells (demonstrated by unaltered alkaline phosphatase activity, and DNA and collagen synthesis). However, LPS enhanced inflammatory characteristics of PDL cells, such as enhanced IL-6 and MCP-1 protein production. The LPS-induced effect on PDL cells was not reversed by estrogen, suggesting that estrogen has no anti-inflammatory effect via this mechanism. The enhanced MCP-1 expression in response to LPS suggests that PDL cells contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes in periodontal inflammation. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Male, Periodontal Ligament: metabolism, Collagen: biosynthesis, Cytokines: metabolism, DNA: biosynthesis, Estrogen Receptor alpha: metabolism, Estrogen Receptor beta: metabolism, Estrogens: metabolism, Estrogens: physiology, Female, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Intracellular Space: metabolism, Chemokines: metabolism, Cultured, Receptors, Alkaline Phosphatase: metabolism, Cells, Estrogen: metabolism, Estrogen: physiology
in
Swed Dent J Suppl
issue
187
pages
11 - 54
publisher
Swedish Dental Association
external identifiers
  • Scopus:34548746841
ISSN
0348-6672
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
075b247d-5ded-4480-a815-de310ef374d6 (old id 607945)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=17821962&dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2012-12-27 11:10:51
date last changed
2016-12-04 04:39:04
@misc{075b247d-5ded-4480-a815-de310ef374d6,
  abstract     = {Abstract<br/><br>
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have addressed the association between changes in levels of the female sex hormone, estrogen, and changes in the parameters of periodontitis, but the mechanism behind estrogenic effects in the periodontium is poorly understood. There are two subtypes of estrogen receptors (ER), ERalpha and ERbeta. The objectives of the present studies were to map periodontal ligament (PDL) cell ER-subtype expression patterns and to investigate their functional importance. This information is valuable for understanding the biological role of ERs in the periodontium.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
METHODS: Human PDL cells were obtained from periodontal tissue explants from teeth that were extracted for orthodontic reasons. The progesterone receptor and ER-subtype expression patterns were studied using immunocytochemistry. The subcellular distribution of ERbeta was determined by immunogold electron microscopy and confocal imaging using the mitochondria-selective probe MitoTracker and ERbeta immunostaining. Expression of the mitochondrial protein, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, was investigated using Western blotting. DNA and collagen synthesis was determined by measuring the incorporation of [3H]thymidine and [3H]proline, respectively. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and Creactive protein (CRP) were analyzed using ELISA. Alkaline phosphatase activity was determined colorimetrically.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Human PDL cells possessed immunoreactivity for ERP but not ERalpha, suggesting that estrogenic effects in PDL cells are mediated via ERbeta. PDL cells expressed no immunoreactivity for progesterone receptors, which implies that progesterone does not have a direct effect on PDL cell function. Confocal imaging and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that ERbeta immunoreactivity was distributed not only in the nucleus but also in the mitochondria. Incubation with estrogen down-regulated expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, indicating functional significance for mitochondrial ER. Physiological concentrations of estrogen had no effect on PDL cell collagen and DNA synthesis but enhanced DNA synthesis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, probably reflecting a cell-typespecific ER-subtype expression pattern. The bacterial endotoxin, LPS, had no effect on the physiological properties of PDL cells (demonstrated by unaltered alkaline phosphatase activity, and DNA and collagen synthesis). However, LPS enhanced inflammatory characteristics of PDL cells, such as enhanced IL-6 and MCP-1 protein production. The LPS-induced effect on PDL cells was not reversed by estrogen, suggesting that estrogen has no anti-inflammatory effect via this mechanism. The enhanced MCP-1 expression in response to LPS suggests that PDL cells contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes in periodontal inflammation.},
  author       = {Jönsson, Daniel},
  issn         = {0348-6672},
  keyword      = {Male,Periodontal Ligament: metabolism,Collagen: biosynthesis,Cytokines: metabolism,DNA: biosynthesis,Estrogen Receptor alpha: metabolism,Estrogen Receptor beta: metabolism,Estrogens: metabolism,Estrogens: physiology,Female,Humans,Immunohistochemistry,Intracellular Space: metabolism,Chemokines: metabolism,Cultured,Receptors,Alkaline Phosphatase: metabolism,Cells,Estrogen: metabolism,Estrogen: physiology},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {187},
  pages        = {11--54},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0xda2e520)},
  series       = {Swed Dent J Suppl},
  title        = {The biological role of the female sex hormone estrogen in the periodontium--studies on human periodontal ligament cells.},
  year         = {2007},
}