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The effect of diluents on the formation rate of nitrogen oxide in a premixed laminar flame

Hermann, Fredrik LU ; Zeuch, Thomas and Klingmann, Jens LU (2004) 2004 ASME Turbo Expo In Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2004 1. p.559-566
Abstract
New high-efficiency power cycles and environmentally friendly cycles have introduced combustion atmospheres that differ from the traditional hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Wet cycles, solid oxide fuel cell with a gas turbine (SOFC-GT), CO<sub>2</sub> separation/capture and biogas combustion are processes that involve high concentrations of inert gases such as H <sub>2</sub>O, CO<sub>2</sub> and N<sub>2</sub>. These new combustion atmospheres have not been well characterized for premixed flames, hence greater interest is attached how NO<sub>X</sub> formation is affected. At combustion temperatures above 1800 K, NO<sub>X</sub> emission is dominated by thermal... (More)
New high-efficiency power cycles and environmentally friendly cycles have introduced combustion atmospheres that differ from the traditional hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Wet cycles, solid oxide fuel cell with a gas turbine (SOFC-GT), CO<sub>2</sub> separation/capture and biogas combustion are processes that involve high concentrations of inert gases such as H <sub>2</sub>O, CO<sub>2</sub> and N<sub>2</sub>. These new combustion atmospheres have not been well characterized for premixed flames, hence greater interest is attached how NO<sub>X</sub> formation is affected. At combustion temperatures above 1800 K, NO<sub>X</sub> emission is dominated by thermal NO<sub>X</sub>. The thermal NO<sub>X</sub> mechanism consists of three elementary reactions. The process is known to be exponential in combustion temperature, but it is also comparably slow and thus dependent on the residence time and the temperature in the post-flame zone. To model the flame, code for a one-dimensional flame with detailed chemistry was used. The flame code solves the combustion evolvement for a one-dimensional, premixed laminar flame. Detailed chemistry was used to model the chemical kinetics. NO<sub>X</sub> production was described by a NO<sub>X</sub> mechanism, including thermal, prompt and N<sub>2</sub>O intermediate. Altogether, the mechanisms consisted of 116 species and 713 reactions. The cases investigated were all premixed flames, diluted with either H<sub>2</sub>O, CO<sub>2</sub>, N<sub>2</sub> or Ar. The cases used a constant combustion temperature of 2000 K and different pressure levels. All cases were investigated at constant inlet air-fuel temperature and varying equivalence ratio. The rate of formation of NO was investigated for both natural gas and hydrogen flames. The rate of formation of NO is reduced by the addition of any diluents at constant combustion temperature if the O-atom concentration is reduced in the high temperature post-flame zone. The computations show equilibrium between O and O<sub>2</sub>, and the reduced rates of formation of NO (at constant temperature) are thus simply the result of reduction in the product [O<sub>2</sub>]<sup>0.5</sup>[N<sub>2</sub>] in the post-flame zone. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Diluents, Flame thickness, Laminar flame, Combustion temperature
in
Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2004
volume
1
pages
559 - 566
publisher
American Society Of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
conference name
2004 ASME Turbo Expo
external identifiers
  • Scopus:10244257663
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
8d3d8b9b-3483-4c05-a0fb-53784248de57 (old id 613962)
date added to LUP
2007-11-26 19:39:28
date last changed
2016-10-13 04:49:04
@misc{8d3d8b9b-3483-4c05-a0fb-53784248de57,
  abstract     = {New high-efficiency power cycles and environmentally friendly cycles have introduced combustion atmospheres that differ from the traditional hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Wet cycles, solid oxide fuel cell with a gas turbine (SOFC-GT), CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; separation/capture and biogas combustion are processes that involve high concentrations of inert gases such as H &lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;O, CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; and N&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;. These new combustion atmospheres have not been well characterized for premixed flames, hence greater interest is attached how NO&lt;sub&gt;X&lt;/sub&gt; formation is affected. At combustion temperatures above 1800 K, NO&lt;sub&gt;X&lt;/sub&gt; emission is dominated by thermal NO&lt;sub&gt;X&lt;/sub&gt;. The thermal NO&lt;sub&gt;X&lt;/sub&gt; mechanism consists of three elementary reactions. The process is known to be exponential in combustion temperature, but it is also comparably slow and thus dependent on the residence time and the temperature in the post-flame zone. To model the flame, code for a one-dimensional flame with detailed chemistry was used. The flame code solves the combustion evolvement for a one-dimensional, premixed laminar flame. Detailed chemistry was used to model the chemical kinetics. NO&lt;sub&gt;X&lt;/sub&gt; production was described by a NO&lt;sub&gt;X&lt;/sub&gt; mechanism, including thermal, prompt and N&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;O intermediate. Altogether, the mechanisms consisted of 116 species and 713 reactions. The cases investigated were all premixed flames, diluted with either H&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;O, CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;, N&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; or Ar. The cases used a constant combustion temperature of 2000 K and different pressure levels. All cases were investigated at constant inlet air-fuel temperature and varying equivalence ratio. The rate of formation of NO was investigated for both natural gas and hydrogen flames. The rate of formation of NO is reduced by the addition of any diluents at constant combustion temperature if the O-atom concentration is reduced in the high temperature post-flame zone. The computations show equilibrium between O and O&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;, and the reduced rates of formation of NO (at constant temperature) are thus simply the result of reduction in the product [O&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;]&lt;sup&gt;0.5&lt;/sup&gt;[N&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;] in the post-flame zone.},
  author       = {Hermann, Fredrik and Zeuch, Thomas and Klingmann, Jens},
  keyword      = {Diluents,Flame thickness,Laminar flame,Combustion temperature},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {559--566},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0xa4b3ab8)},
  series       = {Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2004},
  title        = {The effect of diluents on the formation rate of nitrogen oxide in a premixed laminar flame},
  volume       = {1},
  year         = {2004},
}