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Sources of increase in lowermost stratospheric sulphurous and carbonaceous aerosol background concentrations during 1999-2008 derived from CARIBIC flights

Friberg, Johan LU ; Martinsson, Bengt LU ; Andersson, Sandra LU ; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Hermann, Markus; van Velthoven, Peter F. J. and Zahn, Andreas (2014) In Tellus. Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology
Abstract
This study focuses on sulphurous and carbonaceous aerosol, the major constituents of particulate matter in the

lowermost stratosphere (LMS), based on in situ measurements from 1999 to 2008. Aerosol particles in the size

range of 0.082 mm were collected monthly during intercontinental flights with the CARIBIC passenger

aircraft, presenting the first long-term study on carbonaceous aerosol in the LMS. Elemental concentrations

were derived via subsequent laboratory-based ion beam analysis. The stoichiometry indicates that the

sulphurous fraction is sulphate, while an O/C ratio of 0.2 indicates that the carbonaceous aerosol is organic.

The concentration of the carbonaceous component... (More)
This study focuses on sulphurous and carbonaceous aerosol, the major constituents of particulate matter in the

lowermost stratosphere (LMS), based on in situ measurements from 1999 to 2008. Aerosol particles in the size

range of 0.082 mm were collected monthly during intercontinental flights with the CARIBIC passenger

aircraft, presenting the first long-term study on carbonaceous aerosol in the LMS. Elemental concentrations

were derived via subsequent laboratory-based ion beam analysis. The stoichiometry indicates that the

sulphurous fraction is sulphate, while an O/C ratio of 0.2 indicates that the carbonaceous aerosol is organic.

The concentration of the carbonaceous component corresponded on average to approximately 25% of that of

the sulphurous, and could not be explained by forest fires or biomass burning, since the average mass ratio of

Fe to K was 16 times higher than typical ratios in effluents from biomass burning. The data reveal increasing

concentrations of particulate sulphur and carbon with a doubling of particulate sulphur from 1999 to 2008 in

the northern hemisphere LMS. Periods of elevated concentrations of particulate sulphur in the LMS are linked

to downward transport of aerosol from higher altitudes, using ozone as a tracer for stratospheric air. Tropical

volcanic eruptions penetrating the tropical tropopause are identified as the likely cause of the particulate

sulphur and carbon increase in the LMS, where entrainment of lower tropospheric air into volcanic jets and

plumes could be the cause of the carbon increase. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
lowermost stratosphere, elemental composition, volcanic aerosol, sulphurous aerosol, carbonaceous aerosol
in
Tellus. Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology
publisher
Taylor & Francis
external identifiers
  • Scopus:84901989764
ISSN
0280-6509
DOI
10.3402/tellusb.v66.23428
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
ffa2cc88-7600-4e9c-a304-fb1033296566 (old id 8594417)
alternative location
http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v66.23428
date added to LUP
2016-02-03 14:25:17
date last changed
2016-10-13 04:29:01
@misc{ffa2cc88-7600-4e9c-a304-fb1033296566,
  abstract     = {This study focuses on sulphurous and carbonaceous aerosol, the major constituents of particulate matter in the<br/><br>
lowermost stratosphere (LMS), based on in situ measurements from 1999 to 2008. Aerosol particles in the size<br/><br>
range of 0.082 mm were collected monthly during intercontinental flights with the CARIBIC passenger<br/><br>
aircraft, presenting the first long-term study on carbonaceous aerosol in the LMS. Elemental concentrations<br/><br>
were derived via subsequent laboratory-based ion beam analysis. The stoichiometry indicates that the<br/><br>
sulphurous fraction is sulphate, while an O/C ratio of 0.2 indicates that the carbonaceous aerosol is organic.<br/><br>
The concentration of the carbonaceous component corresponded on average to approximately 25% of that of<br/><br>
the sulphurous, and could not be explained by forest fires or biomass burning, since the average mass ratio of<br/><br>
Fe to K was 16 times higher than typical ratios in effluents from biomass burning. The data reveal increasing<br/><br>
concentrations of particulate sulphur and carbon with a doubling of particulate sulphur from 1999 to 2008 in<br/><br>
the northern hemisphere LMS. Periods of elevated concentrations of particulate sulphur in the LMS are linked<br/><br>
to downward transport of aerosol from higher altitudes, using ozone as a tracer for stratospheric air. Tropical<br/><br>
volcanic eruptions penetrating the tropical tropopause are identified as the likely cause of the particulate<br/><br>
sulphur and carbon increase in the LMS, where entrainment of lower tropospheric air into volcanic jets and<br/><br>
plumes could be the cause of the carbon increase.},
  author       = {Friberg, Johan and Martinsson, Bengt and Andersson, Sandra and Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M. and Hermann, Markus and van Velthoven, Peter F. J. and Zahn, Andreas},
  issn         = {0280-6509},
  keyword      = {lowermost stratosphere,elemental composition,volcanic aerosol,sulphurous aerosol,carbonaceous aerosol},
  language     = {eng},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x8f75778)},
  series       = {Tellus. Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology},
  title        = {Sources of increase in lowermost stratospheric sulphurous and carbonaceous aerosol background concentrations during 1999-2008 derived from CARIBIC flights},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v66.23428},
  year         = {2014},
}