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The Roles of the Host and the Pathogens in Urinary Tract Infections

Köves, Béla LU and Wullt, Björn LU (2016) In European Urology Supplements 15(4). p.88-94
Abstract

The severity of urinary tract infections (UTIs) varies depending on the balance between the virulence of the infecting bacterial strain and the antibacterial host defense. Bacterial virulence is determined by a complex of factors in which bacterial adherence to the uroepithelium is the most important virulence factor, in addition to the production of toxins and the formation of biofilm. In immunocompromised patients and in patients with severely dysfunctional urinary tracts, however, the importance of bacterial virulence factors to cause symptomatic infection is decreased or nullified. The antibacterial host defense in the urinary tract depends mainly on native immunity and inflammation. Specific immunity, with antigen presentation and... (More)

The severity of urinary tract infections (UTIs) varies depending on the balance between the virulence of the infecting bacterial strain and the antibacterial host defense. Bacterial virulence is determined by a complex of factors in which bacterial adherence to the uroepithelium is the most important virulence factor, in addition to the production of toxins and the formation of biofilm. In immunocompromised patients and in patients with severely dysfunctional urinary tracts, however, the importance of bacterial virulence factors to cause symptomatic infection is decreased or nullified. The antibacterial host defense in the urinary tract depends mainly on native immunity and inflammation. Specific immunity, with antigen presentation and antibody production, does not play an important role in acute UTI. Recent research has provided a deeper understanding of the inflammation process in UTI and demonstrated that the individual variation of UTI susceptibility and renal damage not only depends on urinary tract dysfunctions but is also influenced by genetic polymorphisms in innate immune receptors and signaling proteins, crucial for the innate antibacterial defenses. The identification of these molecular mechanisms in UTI pathogenesis is an important focus for future research aimed at the development of novel nonantibiotic therapies. Patient summary: The severity of urinary tract infections (UTIs) varies depending on the balance between the infecting bacterial strain and the antibacterial host defense. Bacterial virulence is determined by different virulence factors that enhance bacterial persistence and tissue damage. The susceptibility to an UTI is influenced by dysfunctions of the urinary tract and by genetic mechanisms that control the innate immune response to infections. The severity of urinary tract infections (UTIs) varies depending on the balance between the infecting bacterial strain and the antibacterial host defense. Urologists will need a more microbiology- and immunology-centered perspective to successfully manage the increasing threat of UTIs.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Escherichia coli, Host response, Innate immunity, Urinary tract infections, Virulence factors
in
European Urology Supplements
volume
15
issue
4
pages
7 pages
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • Scopus:84964647477
ISSN
1569-9056
DOI
10.1016/j.eursup.2016.04.005
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
b5f8a597-7869-4921-ba61-baad01983c51
date added to LUP
2016-05-31 13:13:19
date last changed
2016-12-04 04:51:57
@misc{b5f8a597-7869-4921-ba61-baad01983c51,
  abstract     = {<p>The severity of urinary tract infections (UTIs) varies depending on the balance between the virulence of the infecting bacterial strain and the antibacterial host defense. Bacterial virulence is determined by a complex of factors in which bacterial adherence to the uroepithelium is the most important virulence factor, in addition to the production of toxins and the formation of biofilm. In immunocompromised patients and in patients with severely dysfunctional urinary tracts, however, the importance of bacterial virulence factors to cause symptomatic infection is decreased or nullified. The antibacterial host defense in the urinary tract depends mainly on native immunity and inflammation. Specific immunity, with antigen presentation and antibody production, does not play an important role in acute UTI. Recent research has provided a deeper understanding of the inflammation process in UTI and demonstrated that the individual variation of UTI susceptibility and renal damage not only depends on urinary tract dysfunctions but is also influenced by genetic polymorphisms in innate immune receptors and signaling proteins, crucial for the innate antibacterial defenses. The identification of these molecular mechanisms in UTI pathogenesis is an important focus for future research aimed at the development of novel nonantibiotic therapies. Patient summary: The severity of urinary tract infections (UTIs) varies depending on the balance between the infecting bacterial strain and the antibacterial host defense. Bacterial virulence is determined by different virulence factors that enhance bacterial persistence and tissue damage. The susceptibility to an UTI is influenced by dysfunctions of the urinary tract and by genetic mechanisms that control the innate immune response to infections. The severity of urinary tract infections (UTIs) varies depending on the balance between the infecting bacterial strain and the antibacterial host defense. Urologists will need a more microbiology- and immunology-centered perspective to successfully manage the increasing threat of UTIs.</p>},
  author       = {Köves, Béla and Wullt, Björn},
  issn         = {1569-9056},
  keyword      = {Escherichia coli,Host response,Innate immunity,Urinary tract infections,Virulence factors},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {07},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {88--94},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x9f4b848)},
  series       = {European Urology Supplements},
  title        = {The Roles of the Host and the Pathogens in Urinary Tract Infections},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eursup.2016.04.005},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2016},
}