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The genome of Haemoproteus tartakovskyi and its relationship to human malaria parasites

Bensch, Staffan LU ; Canbäck, Björn LU ; DeBarry, Jeremy D; Johansson, Tomas LU ; Hellgren, Olof LU ; Kissinger, Jessica C; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Videvall, Elin LU and Valkiūnas, Gediminas (2016) In Genome Biology and Evolution 8(5). p.73-1361
Abstract

The phylogenetic relationships among hemosporidian parasites, including the origin of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent malaria parasite of humans, have been heavily debated for decades. Studies based on multiple-gene sequences have helped settle many of these controversial phylogenetic issues. However, denser taxon sampling and genome-wide analyses are needed to confidently resolve the evolutionay relationships among hemosporidian parasites. Genome sequences of several Plasmodium parasites are available but only for species infecting primates and rodents. To root the phylogenetic tree of Plasmodium, genomic data from related parasites of birds or reptiles are required. Here, we use a novel approach to isolate parasite DNA from... (More)

The phylogenetic relationships among hemosporidian parasites, including the origin of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent malaria parasite of humans, have been heavily debated for decades. Studies based on multiple-gene sequences have helped settle many of these controversial phylogenetic issues. However, denser taxon sampling and genome-wide analyses are needed to confidently resolve the evolutionay relationships among hemosporidian parasites. Genome sequences of several Plasmodium parasites are available but only for species infecting primates and rodents. To root the phylogenetic tree of Plasmodium, genomic data from related parasites of birds or reptiles are required. Here, we use a novel approach to isolate parasite DNA from microgametes and describe the first genome of a bird parasite in the sister genus to Plasmodium, Haemoproteus tartakovskyi Similar to Plasmodium parasites, H. tartakovskyi has a small genome (23.2 Mb, 5,990 genes) and a GC content (25.4%) closer to P. falciparum (19.3%) than to Plasmodium vivax (42.3%). Combined with novel transcriptome sequences of the bird parasite Plasmodium ashfordi, our phylogenomic analyses of 1,302 orthologous genes demonstrate that mammalian-infecting malaria parasites are monophyletic, thus rejecting the repeatedly proposed hypothesis that the ancestor of Laverania parasites originated from a secondary host shift from birds to humans. Genes and genomic features previously found to be shared between P. falciparum and bird malaria parasites, but absent in other mammal malaria parasites, are therefore signatures of maintained ancestral states. We foresee that the genome of H. tartakovskyi will open new directions for comparative evolutionary analyses of malarial adaptive traits.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
apicomplexa, haemoproteus, host switching, phylogenomics, Plasmodium, Plasmodium ashfordi, transcriptome
in
Genome Biology and Evolution
volume
8
issue
5
pages
13 pages
publisher
Oxford University Press
ISSN
1759-6653
DOI
10.1093/gbe/evw081
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
eeeca4cd-713d-4363-959b-daa6d26698e0
date added to LUP
2016-09-16 13:49:27
date last changed
2016-10-17 13:32:24
@misc{eeeca4cd-713d-4363-959b-daa6d26698e0,
  abstract     = {<p>The phylogenetic relationships among hemosporidian parasites, including the origin of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent malaria parasite of humans, have been heavily debated for decades. Studies based on multiple-gene sequences have helped settle many of these controversial phylogenetic issues. However, denser taxon sampling and genome-wide analyses are needed to confidently resolve the evolutionay relationships among hemosporidian parasites. Genome sequences of several Plasmodium parasites are available but only for species infecting primates and rodents. To root the phylogenetic tree of Plasmodium, genomic data from related parasites of birds or reptiles are required. Here, we use a novel approach to isolate parasite DNA from microgametes and describe the first genome of a bird parasite in the sister genus to Plasmodium, Haemoproteus tartakovskyi Similar to Plasmodium parasites, H. tartakovskyi has a small genome (23.2 Mb, 5,990 genes) and a GC content (25.4%) closer to P. falciparum (19.3%) than to Plasmodium vivax (42.3%). Combined with novel transcriptome sequences of the bird parasite Plasmodium ashfordi, our phylogenomic analyses of 1,302 orthologous genes demonstrate that mammalian-infecting malaria parasites are monophyletic, thus rejecting the repeatedly proposed hypothesis that the ancestor of Laverania parasites originated from a secondary host shift from birds to humans. Genes and genomic features previously found to be shared between P. falciparum and bird malaria parasites, but absent in other mammal malaria parasites, are therefore signatures of maintained ancestral states. We foresee that the genome of H. tartakovskyi will open new directions for comparative evolutionary analyses of malarial adaptive traits.</p>},
  author       = {Bensch, Staffan and Canbäck, Björn and DeBarry, Jeremy D and Johansson, Tomas and Hellgren, Olof and Kissinger, Jessica C and Palinauskas, Vaidas and Videvall, Elin and Valkiūnas, Gediminas},
  issn         = {1759-6653},
  keyword      = {apicomplexa,haemoproteus,host switching,phylogenomics,Plasmodium,Plasmodium ashfordi,transcriptome},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {73--1361},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x8b17450)},
  series       = {Genome Biology and Evolution},
  title        = {The genome of Haemoproteus tartakovskyi and its relationship to human malaria parasites},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evw081},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2016},
}