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Carbon uptake in Eurasian boreal forests dominates the high-latitude net ecosystem carbon budget

Watts, Jennifer D. ; Farina, Mary ; Kimball, John S. ; Schiferl, Luke D. ; Liu, Zhihua ; Arndt, Kyle A. ; Zona, Donatella ; Ballantyne, Ashley ; Euskirchen, Eugénie S. and Parmentier, Frans Jan W. LU , et al. (2023) In Global Change Biology 29(7). p.1870-1889
Abstract

Arctic-boreal landscapes are experiencing profound warming, along with changes in ecosystem moisture status and disturbance from fire. This region is of global importance in terms of carbon feedbacks to climate, yet the sign (sink or source) and magnitude of the Arctic-boreal carbon budget within recent years remains highly uncertain. Here, we provide new estimates of recent (2003–2015) vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE; Reco − GPP), and terrestrial methane (CH4) emissions for the Arctic-boreal zone using a satellite data-driven process-model for northern ecosystems (TCFM-Arctic), calibrated and evaluated using... (More)

Arctic-boreal landscapes are experiencing profound warming, along with changes in ecosystem moisture status and disturbance from fire. This region is of global importance in terms of carbon feedbacks to climate, yet the sign (sink or source) and magnitude of the Arctic-boreal carbon budget within recent years remains highly uncertain. Here, we provide new estimates of recent (2003–2015) vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE; Reco − GPP), and terrestrial methane (CH4) emissions for the Arctic-boreal zone using a satellite data-driven process-model for northern ecosystems (TCFM-Arctic), calibrated and evaluated using measurements from >60 tower eddy covariance (EC) sites. We used TCFM-Arctic to obtain daily 1-km2 flux estimates and annual carbon budgets for the pan-Arctic-boreal region. Across the domain, the model indicated an overall average NEE sink of −850 Tg CO2-C year−1. Eurasian boreal zones, especially those in Siberia, contributed to a majority of the net sink. In contrast, the tundra biome was relatively carbon neutral (ranging from small sink to source). Regional CH4 emissions from tundra and boreal wetlands (not accounting for aquatic CH4) were estimated at 35 Tg CH4-C year−1. Accounting for additional emissions from open water aquatic bodies and from fire, using available estimates from the literature, reduced the total regional NEE sink by 21% and shifted many far northern tundra landscapes, and some boreal forests, to a net carbon source. This assessment, based on in situ observations and models, improves our understanding of the high-latitude carbon status and also indicates a continued need for integrated site-to-regional assessments to monitor the vulnerability of these ecosystems to climate change.

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organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Arctic-boreal, carbon budget, CH, CO, remote sensing, tundra, wetland
in
Global Change Biology
volume
29
issue
7
pages
1870 - 1889
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • pmid:36647630
  • scopus:85146310183
ISSN
1354-1013
DOI
10.1111/gcb.16553
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
04896921-1f87-48a0-81ff-db4759bd718f
date added to LUP
2023-02-15 11:15:29
date last changed
2024-06-13 23:59:50
@article{04896921-1f87-48a0-81ff-db4759bd718f,
  abstract     = {{<p>Arctic-boreal landscapes are experiencing profound warming, along with changes in ecosystem moisture status and disturbance from fire. This region is of global importance in terms of carbon feedbacks to climate, yet the sign (sink or source) and magnitude of the Arctic-boreal carbon budget within recent years remains highly uncertain. Here, we provide new estimates of recent (2003–2015) vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R<sub>eco</sub>), net ecosystem CO<sub>2</sub> exchange (NEE; R<sub>eco</sub> − GPP), and terrestrial methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) emissions for the Arctic-boreal zone using a satellite data-driven process-model for northern ecosystems (TCFM-Arctic), calibrated and evaluated using measurements from &gt;60 tower eddy covariance (EC) sites. We used TCFM-Arctic to obtain daily 1-km<sup>2</sup> flux estimates and annual carbon budgets for the pan-Arctic-boreal region. Across the domain, the model indicated an overall average NEE sink of −850 Tg CO<sub>2</sub>-C year<sup>−1</sup>. Eurasian boreal zones, especially those in Siberia, contributed to a majority of the net sink. In contrast, the tundra biome was relatively carbon neutral (ranging from small sink to source). Regional CH<sub>4</sub> emissions from tundra and boreal wetlands (not accounting for aquatic CH<sub>4</sub>) were estimated at 35 Tg CH<sub>4</sub>-C year<sup>−1</sup>. Accounting for additional emissions from open water aquatic bodies and from fire, using available estimates from the literature, reduced the total regional NEE sink by 21% and shifted many far northern tundra landscapes, and some boreal forests, to a net carbon source. This assessment, based on in situ observations and models, improves our understanding of the high-latitude carbon status and also indicates a continued need for integrated site-to-regional assessments to monitor the vulnerability of these ecosystems to climate change.</p>}},
  author       = {{Watts, Jennifer D. and Farina, Mary and Kimball, John S. and Schiferl, Luke D. and Liu, Zhihua and Arndt, Kyle A. and Zona, Donatella and Ballantyne, Ashley and Euskirchen, Eugénie S. and Parmentier, Frans Jan W. and Helbig, Manuel and Sonnentag, Oliver and Tagesson, Torbern and Rinne, Janne and Ikawa, Hiroki and Ueyama, Masahito and Kobayashi, Hideki and Sachs, Torsten and Nadeau, Daniel F. and Kochendorfer, John and Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin and Virkkala, Anna and Aurela, Mika and Commane, Roisin and Byrne, Brendan and Birch, Leah and Johnson, Matthew S. and Madani, Nima and Rogers, Brendan and Du, Jinyang and Endsley, Arthur and Savage, Kathleen and Poulter, Ben and Zhang, Zhen and Bruhwiler, Lori M. and Miller, Charles E. and Goetz, Scott and Oechel, Walter C.}},
  issn         = {{1354-1013}},
  keywords     = {{Arctic-boreal; carbon budget; CH; CO; remote sensing; tundra; wetland}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{7}},
  pages        = {{1870--1889}},
  publisher    = {{Wiley-Blackwell}},
  series       = {{Global Change Biology}},
  title        = {{Carbon uptake in Eurasian boreal forests dominates the high-latitude net ecosystem carbon budget}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16553}},
  doi          = {{10.1111/gcb.16553}},
  volume       = {{29}},
  year         = {{2023}},
}