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Evolutionary roads leading to low effective spins, high black hole masses, and O1/O2 rates for LIGO/Virgo binary black holes

Belczynski, K. ; Klencki, J. ; Fields, C. E. ; Olejak, A. ; Berti, E. ; Meynet, G. ; Fryer, C. L. ; Holz, D. E. ; O'Shaughnessy, R. and Brown, D. A. , et al. (2020) In Astronomy and Astrophysics 636(A&A).
Abstract

All ten LIGO/Virgo binary black hole (BH-BH) coalescences reported following the O1/O2 runs have near-zero effective spins. There are only three potential explanations for this. If the BH spin magnitudes are large, then: (i) either both BH spin vectors must be nearly in the orbital plane or (ii) the spin angular momenta of the BHs must be oppositely directed and similar in magnitude. Then there is also the possibility that (iii) the BH spin magnitudes are small. We consider the third hypothesis within the framework of the classical isolated binary evolution scenario of the BH-BH merger formation. We test three models of angular momentum transport in massive stars: A mildly efficient transport by meridional currents (as employed in the... (More)

All ten LIGO/Virgo binary black hole (BH-BH) coalescences reported following the O1/O2 runs have near-zero effective spins. There are only three potential explanations for this. If the BH spin magnitudes are large, then: (i) either both BH spin vectors must be nearly in the orbital plane or (ii) the spin angular momenta of the BHs must be oppositely directed and similar in magnitude. Then there is also the possibility that (iii) the BH spin magnitudes are small. We consider the third hypothesis within the framework of the classical isolated binary evolution scenario of the BH-BH merger formation. We test three models of angular momentum transport in massive stars: A mildly efficient transport by meridional currents (as employed in the Geneva code), an efficient transport by the Tayler-Spruit magnetic dynamo (as implemented in the MESA code), and a very-efficient transport (as proposed by Fuller et al.) to calculate natal BH spins. We allow for binary evolution to increase the BH spins through accretion and account for the potential spin-up of stars through tidal interactions. Additionally, we update the calculations of the stellar-origin BH masses, including revisions to the history of star formation and to the chemical evolution across cosmic time. We find that we can simultaneously match the observed BH-BH merger rate density and BH masses and BH-BH effective spins. Models with efficient angular momentum transport are favored. The updated stellar-mass weighted gas-phase metallicity evolution now used in our models appears to be key for obtaining an improved reproduction of the LIGO/Virgo merger rate estimate. Mass losses during the pair-instability pulsation supernova phase are likely to be overestimated if the merger GW170729 hosts a BH more massive than 50âMâŠ. We also estimate rates of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) mergers from recent LIGO/Virgo observations. If, in fact. angular momentum transport in massive stars is efficient, then any (electromagnetic or gravitational wave) observation of a rapidly spinning BH would indicate either a very effective tidal spin up of the progenitor star (homogeneous evolution, high-mass X-ray binary formation through case A mass transfer, or a spin-up of a Wolf-Rayet star in a close binary by a close companion), significant mass accretion by the hole, or a BH formation through the merger of two or more BHs (in a dense stellar cluster).

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publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Black hole physics, Gravitational waves, Stars: massive
in
Astronomy and Astrophysics
volume
636
issue
A&A
article number
A104
publisher
EDP Sciences
external identifiers
  • scopus:85084284978
ISSN
0004-6361
DOI
10.1051/0004-6361/201936528
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
058eb674-0a6a-4faa-86bd-612998f203b5
date added to LUP
2020-06-10 10:49:30
date last changed
2020-12-29 04:32:27
@article{058eb674-0a6a-4faa-86bd-612998f203b5,
  abstract     = {<p>All ten LIGO/Virgo binary black hole (BH-BH) coalescences reported following the O1/O2 runs have near-zero effective spins. There are only three potential explanations for this. If the BH spin magnitudes are large, then: (i) either both BH spin vectors must be nearly in the orbital plane or (ii) the spin angular momenta of the BHs must be oppositely directed and similar in magnitude. Then there is also the possibility that (iii) the BH spin magnitudes are small. We consider the third hypothesis within the framework of the classical isolated binary evolution scenario of the BH-BH merger formation. We test three models of angular momentum transport in massive stars: A mildly efficient transport by meridional currents (as employed in the Geneva code), an efficient transport by the Tayler-Spruit magnetic dynamo (as implemented in the MESA code), and a very-efficient transport (as proposed by Fuller et al.) to calculate natal BH spins. We allow for binary evolution to increase the BH spins through accretion and account for the potential spin-up of stars through tidal interactions. Additionally, we update the calculations of the stellar-origin BH masses, including revisions to the history of star formation and to the chemical evolution across cosmic time. We find that we can simultaneously match the observed BH-BH merger rate density and BH masses and BH-BH effective spins. Models with efficient angular momentum transport are favored. The updated stellar-mass weighted gas-phase metallicity evolution now used in our models appears to be key for obtaining an improved reproduction of the LIGO/Virgo merger rate estimate. Mass losses during the pair-instability pulsation supernova phase are likely to be overestimated if the merger GW170729 hosts a BH more massive than 50âM<sub>âŠ</sub>. We also estimate rates of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) mergers from recent LIGO/Virgo observations. If, in fact. angular momentum transport in massive stars is efficient, then any (electromagnetic or gravitational wave) observation of a rapidly spinning BH would indicate either a very effective tidal spin up of the progenitor star (homogeneous evolution, high-mass X-ray binary formation through case A mass transfer, or a spin-up of a Wolf-Rayet star in a close binary by a close companion), significant mass accretion by the hole, or a BH formation through the merger of two or more BHs (in a dense stellar cluster).</p>},
  author       = {Belczynski, K. and Klencki, J. and Fields, C. E. and Olejak, A. and Berti, E. and Meynet, G. and Fryer, C. L. and Holz, D. E. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Brown, D. A. and Bulik, T. and Leung, S. C. and Nomoto, K. and Madau, P. and Hirschi, R. and Kaiser, E. and Jones, S. and Mondal, S. and Chruslinska, M. and Drozda, P. and Gerosa, D. and Doctor, Z. and Giersz, M. and Ekstrom, S. and Georgy, C. and Askar, A. and Baibhav, V. and Wysocki, D. and Natan, T. and Farr, W. M. and Wiktorowicz, G. and Coleman Miller, M. and Farr, B. and Lasota, J. P.},
  issn         = {0004-6361},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {04},
  number       = {A&A},
  publisher    = {EDP Sciences},
  series       = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
  title        = {Evolutionary roads leading to low effective spins, high black hole masses, and O1/O2 rates for LIGO/Virgo binary black holes},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201936528},
  doi          = {10.1051/0004-6361/201936528},
  volume       = {636},
  year         = {2020},
}