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Gender differences in autism spectrum disorders: Divergence among specific core symptoms

Beggiato, Anita; Peyre, Hugo; Maruani, Anna; Scheid, Isabelle; Råstam, Maria LU ; Amsellem, Frederique; Gillberg, Carina I; Leboyer, Marion ; Bourgeron, Thomas and Gillberg, Christopher, et al. (2017) In Autism Research 10(4). p.680-689
Abstract
Community-based studies have consistently shown a sex ratio heavily skewed towards males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The factors underlying this predominance of males are largely unknown, but the way girls score on
standardized categorical diagnostic tools might account for the underrecognition of ASD in girls. Despite the existence of different norms for boys and girls with ASD on several major screening tests, the algorithm of the Autism Diagnosis Interview-Revised (ADI-R) has not been reformulated. The aim of our study was to investigate which ADI-R items discriminate between males and females, and to evaluate their weighting in the final diagnosis of autism. We
then conducted discriminant analysis (DA) on a sample of... (More)
Community-based studies have consistently shown a sex ratio heavily skewed towards males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The factors underlying this predominance of males are largely unknown, but the way girls score on
standardized categorical diagnostic tools might account for the underrecognition of ASD in girls. Despite the existence of different norms for boys and girls with ASD on several major screening tests, the algorithm of the Autism Diagnosis Interview-Revised (ADI-R) has not been reformulated. The aim of our study was to investigate which ADI-R items discriminate between males and females, and to evaluate their weighting in the final diagnosis of autism. We
then conducted discriminant analysis (DA) on a sample of 594 probands including 129 females with ASD, recruited by the Paris Autism Research International Sibpair (PARIS) Study. A replication analysis was run on an independent sample of 1716 probands including 338 females with ASD, recruited through the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange (AGRE) program. Entering the raw scores for all ADI-R items as independent variables, the DA correctly classified 78.9% of males and 72.9% of females (P<0.001) in the PARIS cohort, and 72.2% of males and 68.3% of females (P<0.0001) in the AGRE cohort. Among the items extracted by the stepwise DA, four belonged to the ADI-R algorithm used for the final diagnosis of ASD. In conclusion, several items of the ADI-R that are taken into account in the diagnosis of autism significantly differentiates between males and females. The potential gender bias thus induced may participate in the underestimation of the prevalence of ASD in females. (Less)
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type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
autism spectrum disorders; sex; gender; autism diagnosis interview-revised
in
Autism Research
volume
10
issue
4
pages
680 - 689
publisher
John Wiley and Sons Inc.
external identifiers
  • scopus:85018667834
  • wos:000400159500011
ISSN
1939-3806
DOI
10.1002/aur.1715
language
English
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yes
id
07701c08-cc3f-4fa2-8e06-06fdc79fecba
date added to LUP
2016-11-22 12:05:17
date last changed
2018-05-06 04:28:04
@article{07701c08-cc3f-4fa2-8e06-06fdc79fecba,
  abstract     = {Community-based studies have consistently shown a sex ratio heavily skewed towards males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The factors underlying this predominance of males are largely unknown, but the way girls score on<br>
standardized categorical diagnostic tools might account for the underrecognition of ASD in girls. Despite the existence of different norms for boys and girls with ASD on several major screening tests, the algorithm of the Autism Diagnosis Interview-Revised (ADI-R) has not been reformulated. The aim of our study was to investigate which ADI-R items discriminate between males and females, and to evaluate their weighting in the final diagnosis of autism. We<br>
then conducted discriminant analysis (DA) on a sample of 594 probands including 129 females with ASD, recruited by the Paris Autism Research International Sibpair (PARIS) Study. A replication analysis was run on an independent sample of 1716 probands including 338 females with ASD, recruited through the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange (AGRE) program. Entering the raw scores for all ADI-R items as independent variables, the DA correctly classified 78.9% of males and 72.9% of females (P&lt;0.001) in the PARIS cohort, and 72.2% of males and 68.3% of females (P&lt;0.0001) in the AGRE cohort. Among the items extracted by the stepwise DA, four belonged to the ADI-R algorithm used for the final diagnosis of ASD. In conclusion, several items of the ADI-R that are taken into account in the diagnosis of autism significantly differentiates between males and females. The potential gender bias thus induced may participate in the underestimation of the prevalence of ASD in females.},
  author       = {Beggiato, Anita and Peyre, Hugo and Maruani, Anna and Scheid, Isabelle and Råstam, Maria and Amsellem, Frederique and Gillberg, Carina I and Leboyer, Marion  and Bourgeron, Thomas and Gillberg, Christopher and Delorme, Richard},
  issn         = {1939-3806},
  keyword      = {autism spectrum disorders; sex; gender; autism diagnosis interview-revised},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {680--689},
  publisher    = {John Wiley and Sons Inc.},
  series       = {Autism Research},
  title        = {Gender differences in autism spectrum disorders: Divergence among specific core symptoms},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.1715},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2017},
}