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Why Managerial Women are Less Happy Than Managerial Men

Brockmann, Hilke; Koch, Anne Maren; Diederich, Adele and Edling, Christofer LU (2017) In Journal of Happiness Studies
Abstract

Women with managerial careers are significantly less satisfied with their life than their male counterparts. Why? In a representative German panel dataset (GSOEP) we find biological constraints and substitutive mechanisms determining the subjective well-being of female managers. Women’s terminated fertility has a negative impact on women’s life satisfaction between the ages of 35 and 45, when managerial careers usually take off. Money and spare time can compensate for this biological difference. But to maintain an equivalent level of happiness, women need to be compensated by much more income for each hour of spare time given up than men do. So, in order to reach better gender equality in leadership positions, women must be either paid... (More)

Women with managerial careers are significantly less satisfied with their life than their male counterparts. Why? In a representative German panel dataset (GSOEP) we find biological constraints and substitutive mechanisms determining the subjective well-being of female managers. Women’s terminated fertility has a negative impact on women’s life satisfaction between the ages of 35 and 45, when managerial careers usually take off. Money and spare time can compensate for this biological difference. But to maintain an equivalent level of happiness, women need to be compensated by much more income for each hour of spare time given up than men do. So, in order to reach better gender equality in leadership positions, women must be either paid higher incomes (on average around 10%) or must be incentivized with more spare time than men. In the conclusion, we speculate on a new mix of carrots and sticks for advanced careers in order to boost female representation in leadership positions.

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
epub
subject
keywords
Career preferences, Gender differences, Gender studies, Happiness, Leadership, Life satisfaction, Managers
in
Journal of Happiness Studies
pages
25 pages
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • scopus:85009858893
ISSN
1389-4978
DOI
10.1007/s10902-016-9832-z
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
0eb4e086-dfd1-4a3f-950c-582efe723010
date added to LUP
2017-02-15 08:13:09
date last changed
2018-01-07 11:49:52
@article{0eb4e086-dfd1-4a3f-950c-582efe723010,
  abstract     = {<p>Women with managerial careers are significantly less satisfied with their life than their male counterparts. Why? In a representative German panel dataset (GSOEP) we find biological constraints and substitutive mechanisms determining the subjective well-being of female managers. Women’s terminated fertility has a negative impact on women’s life satisfaction between the ages of 35 and 45, when managerial careers usually take off. Money and spare time can compensate for this biological difference. But to maintain an equivalent level of happiness, women need to be compensated by much more income for each hour of spare time given up than men do. So, in order to reach better gender equality in leadership positions, women must be either paid higher incomes (on average around 10%) or must be incentivized with more spare time than men. In the conclusion, we speculate on a new mix of carrots and sticks for advanced careers in order to boost female representation in leadership positions.</p>},
  author       = {Brockmann, Hilke and Koch, Anne Maren and Diederich, Adele and Edling, Christofer},
  issn         = {1389-4978},
  keyword      = {Career preferences,Gender differences,Gender studies,Happiness,Leadership,Life satisfaction,Managers},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {01},
  pages        = {25},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Journal of Happiness Studies},
  title        = {Why Managerial Women are Less Happy Than Managerial Men},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-016-9832-z},
  year         = {2017},
}