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The extreme space weather event in 1903 october/november : An outburst from the quiet sun

Hayakawa, Hisashi ; Ribeiro, Paulo ; Vaquero, José M. ; Gallego, María Cruz ; Knipp, Delores J. ; Mekhaldi, Florian LU ; Bhaskar, Ankush ; Oliveira, Denny M. ; Notsu, Yuta and Carrasco, Víctor M.S. , et al. (2020) In Astrophysical Journal Letters 897(1).
Abstract

While the Sun is generally more eruptive during its maximum and declining phases, observational evidence shows certain cases of powerful solar eruptions during the quiet phase of solar activity. Occurring in the weak Solar Cycle 14 just after its minimum, the extreme space weather event in 1903 October-November is one of these cases. Here, we reconstruct the time series of geomagnetic activity based on contemporary observational records. With the mid-latitude magnetograms, the 1903 magnetic storm is thought to be caused by a fast coronal mass ejection (≈1500 km s-1) and is regarded as a superstorm with an estimated minimum of the equivalent disturbance storm time index (Dst') of ≈-531 nT. The reconstructed time series has been compared... (More)

While the Sun is generally more eruptive during its maximum and declining phases, observational evidence shows certain cases of powerful solar eruptions during the quiet phase of solar activity. Occurring in the weak Solar Cycle 14 just after its minimum, the extreme space weather event in 1903 October-November is one of these cases. Here, we reconstruct the time series of geomagnetic activity based on contemporary observational records. With the mid-latitude magnetograms, the 1903 magnetic storm is thought to be caused by a fast coronal mass ejection (≈1500 km s-1) and is regarded as a superstorm with an estimated minimum of the equivalent disturbance storm time index (Dst') of ≈-531 nT. The reconstructed time series has been compared with the equatorward extension of auroral oval (≈44. 1 in invariant latitude) and the time series of telegraphic disturbances. This case study shows that potential threats posed by extreme space weather events exist even during weak solar cycles or near their minima.

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publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Astrophysical Journal Letters
volume
897
issue
1
article number
L10
publisher
IOP Publishing
external identifiers
  • scopus:85086447645
ISSN
2041-8205
DOI
10.3847/2041-8213/ab6a18
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
0fe02f1e-2b95-441c-9824-0c37b967a6f6
date added to LUP
2020-12-18 14:06:49
date last changed
2021-04-21 13:30:07
@article{0fe02f1e-2b95-441c-9824-0c37b967a6f6,
  abstract     = {<p>While the Sun is generally more eruptive during its maximum and declining phases, observational evidence shows certain cases of powerful solar eruptions during the quiet phase of solar activity. Occurring in the weak Solar Cycle 14 just after its minimum, the extreme space weather event in 1903 October-November is one of these cases. Here, we reconstruct the time series of geomagnetic activity based on contemporary observational records. With the mid-latitude magnetograms, the 1903 magnetic storm is thought to be caused by a fast coronal mass ejection (≈1500 km s-1) and is regarded as a superstorm with an estimated minimum of the equivalent disturbance storm time index (Dst') of ≈-531 nT. The reconstructed time series has been compared with the equatorward extension of auroral oval (≈44. 1 in invariant latitude) and the time series of telegraphic disturbances. This case study shows that potential threats posed by extreme space weather events exist even during weak solar cycles or near their minima. </p>},
  author       = {Hayakawa, Hisashi and Ribeiro, Paulo and Vaquero, José M. and Gallego, María Cruz and Knipp, Delores J. and Mekhaldi, Florian and Bhaskar, Ankush and Oliveira, Denny M. and Notsu, Yuta and Carrasco, Víctor M.S. and Caccavari, Ana and Veenadhari, Bhaskara and Mukherjee, Shyamoli and Ebihara, Yusuke},
  issn         = {2041-8205},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  publisher    = {IOP Publishing},
  series       = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
  title        = {The extreme space weather event in 1903 october/november : An outburst from the quiet sun},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab6a18},
  doi          = {10.3847/2041-8213/ab6a18},
  volume       = {897},
  year         = {2020},
}