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Staten, företagen och arbetskraftsinvandringen - en studie av invandringspolitiken i Sverige och rekryteringen av utländska arbetare 1960-1972

Frank, Denis LU (2005)
Abstract
This dissertation investigates the labour migration from Southern Europe to Sweden, and the changes in Swedish immigration policy between 1960 and 1972. The overall ambition is to bring both the state and employers into the analysis of immigration policy and the recruitment of foreign labour - not separately but together in one study. The dissertation is divided into two main parts. The first part examines the role of the state in shaping the migration streams from Southern Europe to Sweden. From the beginning of the 1950s to 1966, Sweden’s borders were relatively open. A system of unregulated individual labour migration developed, where foreign citizens could enter Sweden as tourists and thereafter look for work and obtain a work permit.... (More)
This dissertation investigates the labour migration from Southern Europe to Sweden, and the changes in Swedish immigration policy between 1960 and 1972. The overall ambition is to bring both the state and employers into the analysis of immigration policy and the recruitment of foreign labour - not separately but together in one study. The dissertation is divided into two main parts. The first part examines the role of the state in shaping the migration streams from Southern Europe to Sweden. From the beginning of the 1950s to 1966, Sweden’s borders were relatively open. A system of unregulated individual labour migration developed, where foreign citizens could enter Sweden as tourists and thereafter look for work and obtain a work permit. For a significant period of time there doesn’t seem to have been any strong opposition to this laissez-faire system. This all changed during the 1960s, however, when the liberal immigration regulations were called into question. An important factor was that immigration increased dramatically in the mid-1960s. In addition, the national composition of the migration streams to Sweden changed during these years. Immigration from Yugoslavia, Greece and also from Turkey increased, while the number of immigrants from the Nordic countries diminished. In connection with the changing immigration pattern, certain actors, such as the trade unions and Sweden’s central employment authority, AMS, called for more restrictive immigration regulations. Demands from the trade unions and AMS led to a more stringent immigration control in 1966, and again in 1967, when a new Swedish immigration policy was introduced. From then on it was the rule that both employment and a work permit had to be obtained before a non-Nordic citizen could enter Sweden.



However, at the same moment in time immigrants rights in Sweden was expanded. In the first place, migrant workers from non-Nordic countries could obtain work permits with a longer period of validity than previously, which meant that they were subjected to much less discipline and control from the authorities. Secondly, immigrants were guaranteed that their work permits would henceforth be prolonged, which in practice meant that they were granted a permanent work permit. Thirdly, after 1967 it became easier for immigrants to change occupations as they wished. After only a short period of time in Sweden, they were free to change occupation as they wished. Accordingly, the year 1967 meant both more stringent regulations of new migration and an increased freedom and protection for foreign citizens entering the Swedish labour market.



The second part of the dissertation investigates how industrial companies have shaped the migration streams from Southern Europe to Sweden. Immigrants from Yugoslavia and Greece were often recruited in order to perform the heavy and subordinate work in the manufacturing industries that native workers had either avoided or left at that particular time. The dissertation attempts to explain this concentration of Southern Europeans in subordinate positions in the manufacturing industries.



During the 1960s, Yugoslavs became the largest non-Nordic group in the migration streams to Sweden. How did Sweden become connected with this emigration country situated in the Mediterranean? One of the aims of this dissertation is to include industrial companies in an analysis of the forces that created the migration streams from Southern Europe to Sweden – not as a background factor that is used to explain the most general migration patterns, but rather as a very concrete actor that wanted migrant workers with definite characteristics and that had enough power to get its own way. To a great extent, the requirements and actions of industrial companies shaped the national composition of the migration streams to Sweden, although they often had a willing associate in the form of the state. (Less)
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author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Papakostas, Apostolis, Stockholm University
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
historical institutionalism, ethnicity, state, social inequality, citizenship, power, labour market, immigration policy, labour migration, sociology, sociologi
pages
256 pages
publisher
Växjö University Press
defense location
Växjö University
defense date
2005-06-10 13:00
ISBN
91-7636-464-X
language
Swedish
LU publication?
no
id
9250df27-8711-439e-97b2-86b45696452a (old id 1030473)
date added to LUP
2009-02-27 10:29:59
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:12
@phdthesis{9250df27-8711-439e-97b2-86b45696452a,
  abstract     = {This dissertation investigates the labour migration from Southern Europe to Sweden, and the changes in Swedish immigration policy between 1960 and 1972. The overall ambition is to bring both the state and employers into the analysis of immigration policy and the recruitment of foreign labour - not separately but together in one study. The dissertation is divided into two main parts. The first part examines the role of the state in shaping the migration streams from Southern Europe to Sweden. From the beginning of the 1950s to 1966, Sweden’s borders were relatively open. A system of unregulated individual labour migration developed, where foreign citizens could enter Sweden as tourists and thereafter look for work and obtain a work permit. For a significant period of time there doesn’t seem to have been any strong opposition to this laissez-faire system. This all changed during the 1960s, however, when the liberal immigration regulations were called into question. An important factor was that immigration increased dramatically in the mid-1960s. In addition, the national composition of the migration streams to Sweden changed during these years. Immigration from Yugoslavia, Greece and also from Turkey increased, while the number of immigrants from the Nordic countries diminished. In connection with the changing immigration pattern, certain actors, such as the trade unions and Sweden’s central employment authority, AMS, called for more restrictive immigration regulations. Demands from the trade unions and AMS led to a more stringent immigration control in 1966, and again in 1967, when a new Swedish immigration policy was introduced. From then on it was the rule that both employment and a work permit had to be obtained before a non-Nordic citizen could enter Sweden.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
However, at the same moment in time immigrants rights in Sweden was expanded. In the first place, migrant workers from non-Nordic countries could obtain work permits with a longer period of validity than previously, which meant that they were subjected to much less discipline and control from the authorities. Secondly, immigrants were guaranteed that their work permits would henceforth be prolonged, which in practice meant that they were granted a permanent work permit. Thirdly, after 1967 it became easier for immigrants to change occupations as they wished. After only a short period of time in Sweden, they were free to change occupation as they wished. Accordingly, the year 1967 meant both more stringent regulations of new migration and an increased freedom and protection for foreign citizens entering the Swedish labour market. <br/><br>
<br/><br>
The second part of the dissertation investigates how industrial companies have shaped the migration streams from Southern Europe to Sweden. Immigrants from Yugoslavia and Greece were often recruited in order to perform the heavy and subordinate work in the manufacturing industries that native workers had either avoided or left at that particular time. The dissertation attempts to explain this concentration of Southern Europeans in subordinate positions in the manufacturing industries. <br/><br>
<br/><br>
During the 1960s, Yugoslavs became the largest non-Nordic group in the migration streams to Sweden. How did Sweden become connected with this emigration country situated in the Mediterranean? One of the aims of this dissertation is to include industrial companies in an analysis of the forces that created the migration streams from Southern Europe to Sweden – not as a background factor that is used to explain the most general migration patterns, but rather as a very concrete actor that wanted migrant workers with definite characteristics and that had enough power to get its own way. To a great extent, the requirements and actions of industrial companies shaped the national composition of the migration streams to Sweden, although they often had a willing associate in the form of the state.},
  author       = {Frank, Denis},
  isbn         = {91-7636-464-X},
  keyword      = {historical institutionalism,ethnicity,state,social inequality,citizenship,power,labour market,immigration policy,labour migration,sociology,sociologi},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {256},
  publisher    = {Växjö University Press},
  title        = {Staten, företagen och arbetskraftsinvandringen - en studie av invandringspolitiken i Sverige och rekryteringen av utländska arbetare 1960-1972},
  year         = {2005},
}