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Normal cervical changes in parous women during the second half of pregnancy--a prospective, longitudinal ultrasound study.

Bergelin, Ingrid and Valentin, Lil LU (2002) In Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 81(1). p.31-38
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine what constitutes normal cervical changes during the second half of pregnancy in parous women delivering at term. DESIGN: The study comprises 21 healthy, pregnant parous women who all gave birth at term. They were examined with transvaginal ultrasound every two weeks from 24 gestational weeks until delivery. Cervical length and width were measured. The inner cervical os was assessed as being closed or open, the length and width of any opening were measured, and dynamic cervical changes (i.e. opening and closing of the inner cervical os during examination) were noted. RESULTS: Median cervical length was 41 mm (range 26-55) at the first examination and 29 mm (range 8-56) at the last examination. The corresponding... (More)
OBJECTIVE: To determine what constitutes normal cervical changes during the second half of pregnancy in parous women delivering at term. DESIGN: The study comprises 21 healthy, pregnant parous women who all gave birth at term. They were examined with transvaginal ultrasound every two weeks from 24 gestational weeks until delivery. Cervical length and width were measured. The inner cervical os was assessed as being closed or open, the length and width of any opening were measured, and dynamic cervical changes (i.e. opening and closing of the inner cervical os during examination) were noted. RESULTS: Median cervical length was 41 mm (range 26-55) at the first examination and 29 mm (range 8-56) at the last examination. The corresponding figures for cervical width were 38 mm (range 29-47) and 46 mm (range 38-64). Cervical length decreased in 18 women but remained unchanged in three. Three patterns of change in cervical length were observed: in 12 women there was a steady, continuous decrease in cervical length (median decrease rate 1.1 mm/week, range 0.6-2.4); in four women the decrease rate accelerated towards the end of pregnancy, the median decrease rate after the change being 3.0 mm/week (range 1.5-4.8); and in two women there was a sudden drop in cervical length at term. Cervical width increased in 16 women but remained unchanged in five. Two patterns of change in cervical width were seen: 14 women manifested a steady continuous increase in cervical width (median 0.8 mm/week, range 0.4-1.8); in two women the increase rate accelerated from around 34 gestational weeks, the increase rate after the change being 4.1 and 5.9 mm/week, respectively. Opening of the internal cervical os was observed at least once in 11 (52%) women and was seen as early as at 24 and 25 gestational weeks in two women. The opening was always V-shaped (median length 6 mm, range 4-17; median width 7 mm, range 3-20). Dynamic changes of the internal cervical os were seen in three women (14%) at 25, 30 and 41 gestational weeks, respectively. CONCLUSION: The cervix of parous women decreases in length and increases in width from midpregnancy to term, but the pattern of change varies between individuals. Knowledge of the different patterns of normal change forms the basis of transvaginal ultrasound studies of pathological cervical changes during pregnancy. (Less)
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organization
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type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Second, Pregnancy Trimester, Pregnancy, Parity, Human, Female, Delivery, Cervix Uteri : ultrasonography, Adult, Cervix Uteri : anatomy & histology, Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
in
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
volume
81
issue
1
pages
31 - 38
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • wos:000174398000006
  • pmid:11942884
  • scopus:0036192206
ISSN
1600-0412
DOI
10.1046/j.0001-6349.2001.00311.x
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
bb26320d-2dc6-485e-8ce7-4738f3eb30a8 (old id 107527)
alternative location
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046%2Fj.0001-6349.2001.00311.x
date added to LUP
2007-07-12 09:55:18
date last changed
2017-01-01 06:54:17
@article{bb26320d-2dc6-485e-8ce7-4738f3eb30a8,
  abstract     = {OBJECTIVE: To determine what constitutes normal cervical changes during the second half of pregnancy in parous women delivering at term. DESIGN: The study comprises 21 healthy, pregnant parous women who all gave birth at term. They were examined with transvaginal ultrasound every two weeks from 24 gestational weeks until delivery. Cervical length and width were measured. The inner cervical os was assessed as being closed or open, the length and width of any opening were measured, and dynamic cervical changes (i.e. opening and closing of the inner cervical os during examination) were noted. RESULTS: Median cervical length was 41 mm (range 26-55) at the first examination and 29 mm (range 8-56) at the last examination. The corresponding figures for cervical width were 38 mm (range 29-47) and 46 mm (range 38-64). Cervical length decreased in 18 women but remained unchanged in three. Three patterns of change in cervical length were observed: in 12 women there was a steady, continuous decrease in cervical length (median decrease rate 1.1 mm/week, range 0.6-2.4); in four women the decrease rate accelerated towards the end of pregnancy, the median decrease rate after the change being 3.0 mm/week (range 1.5-4.8); and in two women there was a sudden drop in cervical length at term. Cervical width increased in 16 women but remained unchanged in five. Two patterns of change in cervical width were seen: 14 women manifested a steady continuous increase in cervical width (median 0.8 mm/week, range 0.4-1.8); in two women the increase rate accelerated from around 34 gestational weeks, the increase rate after the change being 4.1 and 5.9 mm/week, respectively. Opening of the internal cervical os was observed at least once in 11 (52%) women and was seen as early as at 24 and 25 gestational weeks in two women. The opening was always V-shaped (median length 6 mm, range 4-17; median width 7 mm, range 3-20). Dynamic changes of the internal cervical os were seen in three women (14%) at 25, 30 and 41 gestational weeks, respectively. CONCLUSION: The cervix of parous women decreases in length and increases in width from midpregnancy to term, but the pattern of change varies between individuals. Knowledge of the different patterns of normal change forms the basis of transvaginal ultrasound studies of pathological cervical changes during pregnancy.},
  author       = {Bergelin, Ingrid and Valentin, Lil},
  issn         = {1600-0412},
  keyword      = {Second,Pregnancy Trimester,Pregnancy,Parity,Human,Female,Delivery,Cervix Uteri : ultrasonography,Adult,Cervix Uteri : anatomy & histology,Support,Non-U.S. Gov't},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {31--38},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica},
  title        = {Normal cervical changes in parous women during the second half of pregnancy--a prospective, longitudinal ultrasound study.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0001-6349.2001.00311.x},
  volume       = {81},
  year         = {2002},
}