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Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in seven counties in Sweden in relation to water hardness and geological settings. The project: myocardial infarction in mid-Sweden

Nerbrand, Christina LU ; Svärdsudd, K; Ek, J and Tibblin, G (1992) In European Heart Journal 13(6). p.721-727
Abstract
An east-west regional gradient in cardiovascular mortality was found within seven counties in mid-Sweden during the years 1969-1983. The mortality differences were of considerable magnitude for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) as well as for stroke. In previous reports, in which the distribution of risk factors among middle-aged men was presented, the moderate variation among the communities could not explain the mortality variation. Water hardness has previously been reported to be inversely related to cardiovascular mortality in several countries. In this paper, water samples from all 76 communities in seven counties were analysed in relation to mortality rates from IHD and stroke for men and women. Water hardness (Ca+Mg and other minor... (More)
An east-west regional gradient in cardiovascular mortality was found within seven counties in mid-Sweden during the years 1969-1983. The mortality differences were of considerable magnitude for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) as well as for stroke. In previous reports, in which the distribution of risk factors among middle-aged men was presented, the moderate variation among the communities could not explain the mortality variation. Water hardness has previously been reported to be inversely related to cardiovascular mortality in several countries. In this paper, water samples from all 76 communities in seven counties were analysed in relation to mortality rates from IHD and stroke for men and women. Water hardness (Ca+Mg and other minor constituents), and the sulphate and bicarbonate concentrations of the drinking water were inversely related to IHD as well as stroke mortality. The water factors were also inversely related to non-fatal IHD even when account was taken of the age variation and the traditional risk factors as measured by a postal questionnaire. Variation of the water factors accounted for 41% of the variation in IHD mortality rate and 14% of the variation in stroke mortality rate over the 76 communities. (Less)
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author
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
water hardness, mortality, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, epidemiology, geographic variation, risk factors, Cardiovascular disease
in
European Heart Journal
volume
13
issue
6
pages
721 - 727
publisher
Oxford University Press
external identifiers
  • pmid:1623858
  • scopus:0026647912
ISSN
1522-9645
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
e8cfa11a-708f-48e7-8b7d-44f5af92114b (old id 1106475)
alternative location
http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/13/6/721
date added to LUP
2008-08-08 14:27:34
date last changed
2017-01-01 06:45:37
@article{e8cfa11a-708f-48e7-8b7d-44f5af92114b,
  abstract     = {An east-west regional gradient in cardiovascular mortality was found within seven counties in mid-Sweden during the years 1969-1983. The mortality differences were of considerable magnitude for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) as well as for stroke. In previous reports, in which the distribution of risk factors among middle-aged men was presented, the moderate variation among the communities could not explain the mortality variation. Water hardness has previously been reported to be inversely related to cardiovascular mortality in several countries. In this paper, water samples from all 76 communities in seven counties were analysed in relation to mortality rates from IHD and stroke for men and women. Water hardness (Ca+Mg and other minor constituents), and the sulphate and bicarbonate concentrations of the drinking water were inversely related to IHD as well as stroke mortality. The water factors were also inversely related to non-fatal IHD even when account was taken of the age variation and the traditional risk factors as measured by a postal questionnaire. Variation of the water factors accounted for 41% of the variation in IHD mortality rate and 14% of the variation in stroke mortality rate over the 76 communities.},
  author       = {Nerbrand, Christina and Svärdsudd, K and Ek, J and Tibblin, G},
  issn         = {1522-9645},
  keyword      = {water hardness,mortality,calcium,magnesium,sulphate,epidemiology,geographic variation,risk factors,Cardiovascular disease},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {721--727},
  publisher    = {Oxford University Press},
  series       = {European Heart Journal},
  title        = {Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in seven counties in Sweden in relation to water hardness and geological settings. The project: myocardial infarction in mid-Sweden},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {1992},
}