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Heavy-resistance training in older Scandinavian men and women: short- and long-term effects on arm and leg muscles

Lexell, Jan LU ; Downham, D Y; Larsson, Y; Bruhn, E and Morsing, B (1995) In Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 5(6). p.329-341
Abstract
The short- and long-term effects of heavy-resistance training (85% of one-repetition maximum (RM)) on elbow flexion and knee extension dynamic and isokinetic strength and on morphology in the biceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles were evaluated during 1 year in 35 Scandinavian men and women, aged 70-77 years, 12 of whom formed a control group. After the first 11 weeks of training (n = 23; 3 times/week) elbow flexion and knee extension dynamic strength (1 RM) had increased [mean +/- SD] 49% +/- 16 and 163% +/- 75, respectively, with no significant difference between men and women. For the following 27 weeks, strength was maintained with one training session per week (n = 12) but dropped without training (n = 11). After the final 11... (More)
The short- and long-term effects of heavy-resistance training (85% of one-repetition maximum (RM)) on elbow flexion and knee extension dynamic and isokinetic strength and on morphology in the biceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles were evaluated during 1 year in 35 Scandinavian men and women, aged 70-77 years, 12 of whom formed a control group. After the first 11 weeks of training (n = 23; 3 times/week) elbow flexion and knee extension dynamic strength (1 RM) had increased [mean +/- SD] 49% +/- 16 and 163% +/- 75, respectively, with no significant difference between men and women. For the following 27 weeks, strength was maintained with one training session per week (n = 12) but dropped without training (n = 11). After the final 11 weeks of training (n = 11; 3 times/week), strength had further increased 32% +/- 16 in both the arm and the leg. Isokinetic strength measurements (Cybex II; 30 degrees/s) revealed similar but smaller gains than for dynamic strength. Muscle biopsies (n = 20) taken at the start and after the first 11 weeks of training showed a significant increase in the area of both type 1 and type 2 fibers in the biceps brachii muscle and a positive significant correlation between the percentage increase in the proportional area of type 2 fibers in the vastus lateralis muscle and the percentage increase in knee extension dynamic muscle strength. In conclusion, older Scandinavian men and women have a high capacity both to improve and to maintain muscle strength, some of which is mediated through an adaptation in the muscle fiber type population. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
aging, muscle, physical fitness, physiological adaptation
in
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
volume
5
issue
6
pages
329 - 341
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • pmid:8775717
  • scopus:0029440544
ISSN
1600-0838
DOI
10.1111/j.1600-0838.1995.tb00055.x
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
4a27e155-5a05-48f1-bd9b-23d1778abb37 (old id 1109527)
date added to LUP
2008-07-28 16:27:33
date last changed
2017-06-11 04:23:51
@article{4a27e155-5a05-48f1-bd9b-23d1778abb37,
  abstract     = {The short- and long-term effects of heavy-resistance training (85% of one-repetition maximum (RM)) on elbow flexion and knee extension dynamic and isokinetic strength and on morphology in the biceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles were evaluated during 1 year in 35 Scandinavian men and women, aged 70-77 years, 12 of whom formed a control group. After the first 11 weeks of training (n = 23; 3 times/week) elbow flexion and knee extension dynamic strength (1 RM) had increased [mean +/- SD] 49% +/- 16 and 163% +/- 75, respectively, with no significant difference between men and women. For the following 27 weeks, strength was maintained with one training session per week (n = 12) but dropped without training (n = 11). After the final 11 weeks of training (n = 11; 3 times/week), strength had further increased 32% +/- 16 in both the arm and the leg. Isokinetic strength measurements (Cybex II; 30 degrees/s) revealed similar but smaller gains than for dynamic strength. Muscle biopsies (n = 20) taken at the start and after the first 11 weeks of training showed a significant increase in the area of both type 1 and type 2 fibers in the biceps brachii muscle and a positive significant correlation between the percentage increase in the proportional area of type 2 fibers in the vastus lateralis muscle and the percentage increase in knee extension dynamic muscle strength. In conclusion, older Scandinavian men and women have a high capacity both to improve and to maintain muscle strength, some of which is mediated through an adaptation in the muscle fiber type population.},
  author       = {Lexell, Jan and Downham, D Y and Larsson, Y and Bruhn, E and Morsing, B},
  issn         = {1600-0838},
  keyword      = {aging,muscle,physical fitness,physiological adaptation},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {329--341},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports},
  title        = {Heavy-resistance training in older Scandinavian men and women: short- and long-term effects on arm and leg muscles},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.1995.tb00055.x},
  volume       = {5},
  year         = {1995},
}