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Use of calcium channel blockers and risk of suicide: ecological findings confirmed in population based cohort study

Lindberg, Gunnar LU ; Bingefors, K; Ranstam, Jonas LU ; Råstam, Lennart LU and Melander, Arne LU (1998) In BMJ (Clinical Research Edition) 316(7133). p.741-745
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible associations between use of cardiovascular drugs and suicide. DESIGN: Cross sectional ecological study based on rates of use of eight cardiovascular drug groups by outpatients. A population based cohort study including users of drugs to control hypertension. SUBJECTS: The ecological study included 152 of Sweden's 284 municipalities. The cohort study included all inhabitants of one Swedish municipality who during 1988 or 1989 had purchased cardiovascular agents from pharmacies within the municipality. Six hundred and seventeen subjects (18.2%) were classified as users of calcium channel blockers and 2780 (81.8%) as non-users. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Partial correlations (least squares method) between rates... (More)
OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible associations between use of cardiovascular drugs and suicide. DESIGN: Cross sectional ecological study based on rates of use of eight cardiovascular drug groups by outpatients. A population based cohort study including users of drugs to control hypertension. SUBJECTS: The ecological study included 152 of Sweden's 284 municipalities. The cohort study included all inhabitants of one Swedish municipality who during 1988 or 1989 had purchased cardiovascular agents from pharmacies within the municipality. Six hundred and seventeen subjects (18.2%) were classified as users of calcium channel blockers and 2780 (81.8%) as non-users. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Partial correlations (least squares method) between rates of use of cardiovascular drugs and age standardised mortality from suicide in Swedish municipalities. Hazard ratios for risk of suicide with adjustments for difference in age and sex in users of calcium channel blockers compared with users of other hypertensive drugs. RESULTS: Among the Swedish municipalities the use of each cardiovascular drug group except angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors correlated significantly and positively with suicide rates. After adjustment for the use of other cardiovascular drug groups, as a substitute for the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity, only the correlation with calcium channel blockers remained significant (r = 0.29, P < 0.001). In the cohort study, five users and four non-users of calcium channel blockers committed suicide during the follow up until the end of 1994. The absolute risk associated with use of calcium channel blockers was 1.1 suicides per 1000 person years. The relative risk, adjusted for differences in age and sex, among users versus non-users was 5.4 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 20.5). CONCLUSIONS: Use of calcium channel blockers may increase the risk of suicide. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
BMJ (Clinical Research Edition)
volume
316
issue
7133
pages
741 - 745
publisher
British Medical Association
external identifiers
  • pmid:9529409
  • scopus:0032492471
ISSN
0959-8138
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
f9e2c117-349a-43fa-a988-273e5bd80b8d (old id 1113728)
alternative location
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/316/7133/741
date added to LUP
2008-07-16 10:34:02
date last changed
2017-11-05 04:27:15
@article{f9e2c117-349a-43fa-a988-273e5bd80b8d,
  abstract     = {OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible associations between use of cardiovascular drugs and suicide. DESIGN: Cross sectional ecological study based on rates of use of eight cardiovascular drug groups by outpatients. A population based cohort study including users of drugs to control hypertension. SUBJECTS: The ecological study included 152 of Sweden's 284 municipalities. The cohort study included all inhabitants of one Swedish municipality who during 1988 or 1989 had purchased cardiovascular agents from pharmacies within the municipality. Six hundred and seventeen subjects (18.2%) were classified as users of calcium channel blockers and 2780 (81.8%) as non-users. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Partial correlations (least squares method) between rates of use of cardiovascular drugs and age standardised mortality from suicide in Swedish municipalities. Hazard ratios for risk of suicide with adjustments for difference in age and sex in users of calcium channel blockers compared with users of other hypertensive drugs. RESULTS: Among the Swedish municipalities the use of each cardiovascular drug group except angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors correlated significantly and positively with suicide rates. After adjustment for the use of other cardiovascular drug groups, as a substitute for the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity, only the correlation with calcium channel blockers remained significant (r = 0.29, P &lt; 0.001). In the cohort study, five users and four non-users of calcium channel blockers committed suicide during the follow up until the end of 1994. The absolute risk associated with use of calcium channel blockers was 1.1 suicides per 1000 person years. The relative risk, adjusted for differences in age and sex, among users versus non-users was 5.4 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 20.5). CONCLUSIONS: Use of calcium channel blockers may increase the risk of suicide.},
  author       = {Lindberg, Gunnar and Bingefors, K and Ranstam, Jonas and Råstam, Lennart and Melander, Arne},
  issn         = {0959-8138},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7133},
  pages        = {741--745},
  publisher    = {British Medical Association},
  series       = {BMJ (Clinical Research Edition)},
  title        = {Use of calcium channel blockers and risk of suicide: ecological findings confirmed in population based cohort study},
  volume       = {316},
  year         = {1998},
}