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Right atrial free wall conduction velocity and degree of anisotropy in patients with stable sinus rhythm studied during open heart surgery

Hansson, Anders P LU ; Holm, M; Blomström, P; Johansson, R; Lührs, Carsten LU ; Brandt, Johan LU and Olsson, Bertil LU (1998) In European Heart Journal 19(2). p.293-300
Abstract
AIMS: Although the perpetuation of several supraventricular arrhythmias is critically dependent upon intra-atrial conduction, the literature lacks detailed information on normal values of conduction velocity and degree of anisotropy. In order to explore these factors further, we have measured conduction velocities at the right atrial free wall during sinus rhythm and during atrial pacing in four directions parallel and perpendicular to the atrioventricular groove in patients with normal atria and stable sinus rhythm. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a Bard Cardiac Mapping System, atrial ECGs were recorded using a 3 x 4 cm electrode array with 56 equally spaced bipolar electrodes in 12 patients undergoing open heart surgery due to ischaemic heart... (More)
AIMS: Although the perpetuation of several supraventricular arrhythmias is critically dependent upon intra-atrial conduction, the literature lacks detailed information on normal values of conduction velocity and degree of anisotropy. In order to explore these factors further, we have measured conduction velocities at the right atrial free wall during sinus rhythm and during atrial pacing in four directions parallel and perpendicular to the atrioventricular groove in patients with normal atria and stable sinus rhythm. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a Bard Cardiac Mapping System, atrial ECGs were recorded using a 3 x 4 cm electrode array with 56 equally spaced bipolar electrodes in 12 patients undergoing open heart surgery due to ischaemic heart disease or Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome. A bipolar pen probe connected to a Medtronic 5328 stimulator was used for pacing at a 10% higher rate than sinus rhythm. The local activation times were manually set and isochronal activation maps were created for each recording. The conduction velocities were calculated from the activation maps over a distance ranging from 2.2 to 4.2 cm. The majority of the activation maps showed no signs of anisotropy; the others had less than 15% spatial inhomogeneity of conduction. Mean conduction velocity, calculated from five consecutive beats, was 88 +/- 9 cm.s-1 (mean +/- SD), ranging between 68 +/- 4 and 103 +/- 3 cm.s-1 during sinus rhythm. Mean conduction velocity during atrial pacing was 81 +/- 16 cm.s-1 at a propagation direction of 0 degree, 74 +/- 14 cm.s-1 at a 90 degrees direction, 79 +/- 12 cm.s-1 at 180 degrees and 78 +/- 20 cm.s-1 at 270 degrees, where 0 degree was parallel to the atrioventricular groove in the cranial direction and the angle increased counter-clockwise. Mean conduction velocity during sinus rhythm was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than during atrial pacing at the 90 degrees and 180 degrees directions but not compared to atrial pacing at 0 degree or 270 degrees. There was no significant difference in mean conduction velocity in different directions during atrial pacing. CONCLUSION: Although anisotropy was documented during conduction velocity in individual cases, conduction velocity was not dependent on propagation direction at the epicardial right atrial free wall in patients with stable sinus rhythm. These findings do not exclude the presence of internodal preferential pathways as these are located sub-epicardially and a marked transmural discordance in activation has previously been documented in the vicinity of such pathways. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Atrium, conduction velocity, anisotropy, epicardial
in
European Heart Journal
volume
19
issue
2
pages
293 - 300
publisher
Oxford University Press
external identifiers
  • pmid:9519324
  • scopus:0031929422
ISSN
1522-9645
DOI
10.1053/euhj.1997.0742
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
741bbfc2-32fa-4da0-8215-cebc28902bf5 (old id 1114043)
date added to LUP
2008-07-11 12:29:58
date last changed
2017-11-12 04:01:51
@article{741bbfc2-32fa-4da0-8215-cebc28902bf5,
  abstract     = {AIMS: Although the perpetuation of several supraventricular arrhythmias is critically dependent upon intra-atrial conduction, the literature lacks detailed information on normal values of conduction velocity and degree of anisotropy. In order to explore these factors further, we have measured conduction velocities at the right atrial free wall during sinus rhythm and during atrial pacing in four directions parallel and perpendicular to the atrioventricular groove in patients with normal atria and stable sinus rhythm. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a Bard Cardiac Mapping System, atrial ECGs were recorded using a 3 x 4 cm electrode array with 56 equally spaced bipolar electrodes in 12 patients undergoing open heart surgery due to ischaemic heart disease or Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome. A bipolar pen probe connected to a Medtronic 5328 stimulator was used for pacing at a 10% higher rate than sinus rhythm. The local activation times were manually set and isochronal activation maps were created for each recording. The conduction velocities were calculated from the activation maps over a distance ranging from 2.2 to 4.2 cm. The majority of the activation maps showed no signs of anisotropy; the others had less than 15% spatial inhomogeneity of conduction. Mean conduction velocity, calculated from five consecutive beats, was 88 +/- 9 cm.s-1 (mean +/- SD), ranging between 68 +/- 4 and 103 +/- 3 cm.s-1 during sinus rhythm. Mean conduction velocity during atrial pacing was 81 +/- 16 cm.s-1 at a propagation direction of 0 degree, 74 +/- 14 cm.s-1 at a 90 degrees direction, 79 +/- 12 cm.s-1 at 180 degrees and 78 +/- 20 cm.s-1 at 270 degrees, where 0 degree was parallel to the atrioventricular groove in the cranial direction and the angle increased counter-clockwise. Mean conduction velocity during sinus rhythm was significantly higher (P &lt; 0.05) than during atrial pacing at the 90 degrees and 180 degrees directions but not compared to atrial pacing at 0 degree or 270 degrees. There was no significant difference in mean conduction velocity in different directions during atrial pacing. CONCLUSION: Although anisotropy was documented during conduction velocity in individual cases, conduction velocity was not dependent on propagation direction at the epicardial right atrial free wall in patients with stable sinus rhythm. These findings do not exclude the presence of internodal preferential pathways as these are located sub-epicardially and a marked transmural discordance in activation has previously been documented in the vicinity of such pathways.},
  author       = {Hansson, Anders P and Holm, M and Blomström, P and Johansson, R and Lührs, Carsten and Brandt, Johan and Olsson, Bertil},
  issn         = {1522-9645},
  keyword      = {Atrium,conduction velocity,anisotropy,epicardial},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {293--300},
  publisher    = {Oxford University Press},
  series       = {European Heart Journal},
  title        = {Right atrial free wall conduction velocity and degree of anisotropy in patients with stable sinus rhythm studied during open heart surgery},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/euhj.1997.0742},
  volume       = {19},
  year         = {1998},
}