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The role of molecular forms of prostate-specific antigen (PSA or hK3) and of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer and in extra-prostatic disease

Becker, Charlotte LU ; Noldus, Joachim; Diamandis, Eleftherios and Lilja, Hans LU (2001) In Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences 38(5). p.357-399
Abstract
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or hK3) is a glandular kallikrein with abundant expression in the prostate that is widely used to detect and monitor prostate cancer (PCa), although the serum level is frequently elevated also in benign and inflammatory prostatic diseases. PSA testing is useful for early detection of localized PCa and for the detection of disease recurrence after treatment. However, PSA has failed to accurately estimate cancer volume and preoperative staging. There is no PSA level in serum that definitively distinguishes men with benign conditions from those with prostate cancer, although PCa is rare in men with PSA levels in serum < 2.0 ng/ml. This prompted searches for enhancing parameters to combine with PSA testing,... (More)
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or hK3) is a glandular kallikrein with abundant expression in the prostate that is widely used to detect and monitor prostate cancer (PCa), although the serum level is frequently elevated also in benign and inflammatory prostatic diseases. PSA testing is useful for early detection of localized PCa and for the detection of disease recurrence after treatment. However, PSA has failed to accurately estimate cancer volume and preoperative staging. There is no PSA level in serum that definitively distinguishes men with benign conditions from those with prostate cancer, although PCa is rare in men with PSA levels in serum < 2.0 ng/ml. This prompted searches for enhancing parameters to combine with PSA testing, such as PSA density, PSA velocity, and age-specific reference ranges. Due to the protease structure, PSA occurs in different molecular forms in serum and their concentrations vary according to the type of prostatic disease. Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) is very similar to PSA, but expressed at higher levels in prostate adenocarcinoma than in normal prostate epithelium. Blood testing for hK2 combined with different PSA forms improves discrimination of men with benign prostatic disease from those with prostate cancer. Many data have also been reported on the extra-prostatic expression of both PSA and hK2, and it is now believed that they may both have functions in tissues outside the prostate. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
human glandular kallikreins, tumor markers, carcinoma, complexed PSA, free PSA, breast cancer
in
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
volume
38
issue
5
pages
357 - 399
publisher
CRC Press
external identifiers
  • pmid:11720279
  • scopus:0034765854
ISSN
1549-781X
DOI
10.1080/20014091084236
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
6acf1aba-ebe9-4e2f-a52e-0b178de3f7c0 (old id 1121883)
date added to LUP
2008-06-24 12:53:52
date last changed
2018-01-07 05:19:42
@article{6acf1aba-ebe9-4e2f-a52e-0b178de3f7c0,
  abstract     = {Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or hK3) is a glandular kallikrein with abundant expression in the prostate that is widely used to detect and monitor prostate cancer (PCa), although the serum level is frequently elevated also in benign and inflammatory prostatic diseases. PSA testing is useful for early detection of localized PCa and for the detection of disease recurrence after treatment. However, PSA has failed to accurately estimate cancer volume and preoperative staging. There is no PSA level in serum that definitively distinguishes men with benign conditions from those with prostate cancer, although PCa is rare in men with PSA levels in serum &lt; 2.0 ng/ml. This prompted searches for enhancing parameters to combine with PSA testing, such as PSA density, PSA velocity, and age-specific reference ranges. Due to the protease structure, PSA occurs in different molecular forms in serum and their concentrations vary according to the type of prostatic disease. Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) is very similar to PSA, but expressed at higher levels in prostate adenocarcinoma than in normal prostate epithelium. Blood testing for hK2 combined with different PSA forms improves discrimination of men with benign prostatic disease from those with prostate cancer. Many data have also been reported on the extra-prostatic expression of both PSA and hK2, and it is now believed that they may both have functions in tissues outside the prostate.},
  author       = {Becker, Charlotte and Noldus, Joachim and Diamandis, Eleftherios and Lilja, Hans},
  issn         = {1549-781X},
  keyword      = {human glandular kallikreins,tumor markers,carcinoma,complexed PSA,free PSA,breast cancer},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {357--399},
  publisher    = {CRC Press},
  series       = {Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences},
  title        = {The role of molecular forms of prostate-specific antigen (PSA or hK3) and of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer and in extra-prostatic disease},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20014091084236},
  volume       = {38},
  year         = {2001},
}