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Phthalate diesters and their metabolites in human breast milk, blood or serum, and urine as biomarkers of exposure in vulnerable populations

Hogberg, Johan; Hanberg, Annika; Berglund, Marika; Skerfving, Staffan LU ; Remberger, Mikael; Calafat, Antonia M.; Filipsson, Agneta Falk; Jansson, Bo; Johansson, Niklas and Appelgren, Malin, et al. (2008) In Environmental Health Perspectives 116(3). p.334-339
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Phthalates may pose a risk for perinatal developmental effects. An important question relates to the choice of suitable biological matrices for assessing exposure during this period. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to measure the concentrations of phthalate diesters or their metabolites in breast milk, blood or serum, and urine and to evaluate their suitability for assessing perinatal exposure to phthalates. METHODS: In 2001, 2-3 weeks after delivery, 42 Swedish primipara provided breast milk, blood, and urine samples at home. Special care was taken to minimize contamination with phthalates (e.g., use of a special breast milk pump, heat treatment of glassware and needles, addition of phosphoric acid). RESULTS: Phthalate... (More)
BACKGROUND: Phthalates may pose a risk for perinatal developmental effects. An important question relates to the choice of suitable biological matrices for assessing exposure during this period. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to measure the concentrations of phthalate diesters or their metabolites in breast milk, blood or serum, and urine and to evaluate their suitability for assessing perinatal exposure to phthalates. METHODS: In 2001, 2-3 weeks after delivery, 42 Swedish primipara provided breast milk, blood, and urine samples at home. Special care was taken to minimize contamination with phthalates (e.g., use of a special breast milk pump, heat treatment of glassware and needles, addition of phosphoric acid). RESULTS: Phthalate diesters and metabolites in milk and blood or serum, if detected, were present at concentrations close to the limit of detection. By contrast, most phthalate metabolites were detectable in urine at concentrations comparable to those from the general population in the United States and in Germany. No correlations existed between urine concentrations and those found in milk or blood/serum for single phthalate metabolites. Our data are at odds with a previous study documenting frequent detection and comparatively high concentrations of phthalate metabolites in Finnish and Danish mothers' milk. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine are more informative than those in milk or serum. Furthermore, collection of milk or blood may be associated with discomfort and potential technical problems such as contamination (unless oxidative metabolites are measured). Although urine is a suitable matrix for health-related phthalate monitoring, urinary concentrations in nursing mothers cannot be used to estimate exposure to phthalates through milk ingestion by breast-fed infants. (Less)
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publication status
published
subject
keywords
phthalates, urine, perinatal, metabolites, breast milk, biomonitoring, blood
in
Environmental Health Perspectives
volume
116
issue
3
pages
334 - 339
publisher
National Institute of Environmental Health Science
external identifiers
  • wos:000253670600030
  • scopus:40849118191
ISSN
1552-9924
DOI
10.1289/ehp.10788
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
d18c8a65-fb89-4b5c-adb3-38e96e10911c (old id 1193609)
date added to LUP
2008-09-05 14:54:02
date last changed
2017-09-10 04:05:19
@article{d18c8a65-fb89-4b5c-adb3-38e96e10911c,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND: Phthalates may pose a risk for perinatal developmental effects. An important question relates to the choice of suitable biological matrices for assessing exposure during this period. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to measure the concentrations of phthalate diesters or their metabolites in breast milk, blood or serum, and urine and to evaluate their suitability for assessing perinatal exposure to phthalates. METHODS: In 2001, 2-3 weeks after delivery, 42 Swedish primipara provided breast milk, blood, and urine samples at home. Special care was taken to minimize contamination with phthalates (e.g., use of a special breast milk pump, heat treatment of glassware and needles, addition of phosphoric acid). RESULTS: Phthalate diesters and metabolites in milk and blood or serum, if detected, were present at concentrations close to the limit of detection. By contrast, most phthalate metabolites were detectable in urine at concentrations comparable to those from the general population in the United States and in Germany. No correlations existed between urine concentrations and those found in milk or blood/serum for single phthalate metabolites. Our data are at odds with a previous study documenting frequent detection and comparatively high concentrations of phthalate metabolites in Finnish and Danish mothers' milk. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine are more informative than those in milk or serum. Furthermore, collection of milk or blood may be associated with discomfort and potential technical problems such as contamination (unless oxidative metabolites are measured). Although urine is a suitable matrix for health-related phthalate monitoring, urinary concentrations in nursing mothers cannot be used to estimate exposure to phthalates through milk ingestion by breast-fed infants.},
  author       = {Hogberg, Johan and Hanberg, Annika and Berglund, Marika and Skerfving, Staffan and Remberger, Mikael and Calafat, Antonia M. and Filipsson, Agneta Falk and Jansson, Bo and Johansson, Niklas and Appelgren, Malin and Hakansson, Helen},
  issn         = {1552-9924},
  keyword      = {phthalates,urine,perinatal,metabolites,breast milk,biomonitoring,blood},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {334--339},
  publisher    = {National Institute of Environmental Health Science},
  series       = {Environmental Health Perspectives},
  title        = {Phthalate diesters and their metabolites in human breast milk, blood or serum, and urine as biomarkers of exposure in vulnerable populations},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10788},
  volume       = {116},
  year         = {2008},
}