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Exposure to inhalable dust and its cyclohexane soluble fraction since the 1970s in the rubber manufacturing industry in the European Union

de Vocht, F; Vermeulen, R; Burstyn, I; Sobala, W; Dost, A; Taeger, D; Bergendorf, Ulf LU ; Straif, K; Swuste, P and Kromhout, H (2008) In Occupational and Environmental Medicine 65(6). p.384-391
Abstract
Objectives: As exposures to airborne particulates in the European rubber industry might still be causing genotoxic risks, it is important to assess trends in levels of inhalable dust and its cyclohexane soluble fraction (CSF) between the 1970s and 2003. Methods: 13 380 inhalable and 816 respirable dust and 5657 CSF measurements, collected within the framework of the European Union Concerted Action EXASRUB, were analysed. Hierarchical mixed effects models were applied to assess exposure trends, taking into account between-factory, between-worker/location and day-to-day variances. Results: Geometric mean levels of inhalable dust and CSF exposure changed by 24% (range -5.8 to +2.9%) and -3% (range -8.6 to 0%) per year, respectively.... (More)
Objectives: As exposures to airborne particulates in the European rubber industry might still be causing genotoxic risks, it is important to assess trends in levels of inhalable dust and its cyclohexane soluble fraction (CSF) between the 1970s and 2003. Methods: 13 380 inhalable and 816 respirable dust and 5657 CSF measurements, collected within the framework of the European Union Concerted Action EXASRUB, were analysed. Hierarchical mixed effects models were applied to assess exposure trends, taking into account between-factory, between-worker/location and day-to-day variances. Results: Geometric mean levels of inhalable dust and CSF exposure changed by 24% (range -5.8 to +2.9%) and -3% (range -8.6 to 0%) per year, respectively. Significant reductions in inhalable dust concentrations were found in all countries for handling of crude materials and mixing and milling (-7% to -4% per year), as well as for miscellaneous workers (-11% to -5% per year), while significant CSF exposure reductions were found in curing (-8.6% per year) and maintenance and engineering departments (-5.4% per year). Conclusion: These analyses suggest that on average exposure levels of inhalable dust and its CSF in the European rubber manufacturing industry have steadily declined. Most likely genotoxic risks have also lessened over time since exposure levels have decreased and the most toxic chemicals have been replaced. In addition to differences in exposure reductions and levels among various stages of the production process, large differences across countries were noted. These patterns should be taken into account in retrospective assessment of exposure for epidemiological studies assessing cancer risk in the rubber industry. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
volume
65
issue
6
pages
384 - 391
publisher
BMJ Publishing Group
external identifiers
  • wos:000255954900005
  • scopus:44449165529
ISSN
1470-7926
DOI
10.1136/oem.2007.034470
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
2da12bd2-f0d6-4605-8231-70c9a368a1a2 (old id 1203303)
date added to LUP
2008-09-15 16:23:05
date last changed
2017-08-06 04:15:40
@article{2da12bd2-f0d6-4605-8231-70c9a368a1a2,
  abstract     = {Objectives: As exposures to airborne particulates in the European rubber industry might still be causing genotoxic risks, it is important to assess trends in levels of inhalable dust and its cyclohexane soluble fraction (CSF) between the 1970s and 2003. Methods: 13 380 inhalable and 816 respirable dust and 5657 CSF measurements, collected within the framework of the European Union Concerted Action EXASRUB, were analysed. Hierarchical mixed effects models were applied to assess exposure trends, taking into account between-factory, between-worker/location and day-to-day variances. Results: Geometric mean levels of inhalable dust and CSF exposure changed by 24% (range -5.8 to +2.9%) and -3% (range -8.6 to 0%) per year, respectively. Significant reductions in inhalable dust concentrations were found in all countries for handling of crude materials and mixing and milling (-7% to -4% per year), as well as for miscellaneous workers (-11% to -5% per year), while significant CSF exposure reductions were found in curing (-8.6% per year) and maintenance and engineering departments (-5.4% per year). Conclusion: These analyses suggest that on average exposure levels of inhalable dust and its CSF in the European rubber manufacturing industry have steadily declined. Most likely genotoxic risks have also lessened over time since exposure levels have decreased and the most toxic chemicals have been replaced. In addition to differences in exposure reductions and levels among various stages of the production process, large differences across countries were noted. These patterns should be taken into account in retrospective assessment of exposure for epidemiological studies assessing cancer risk in the rubber industry.},
  author       = {de Vocht, F and Vermeulen, R and Burstyn, I and Sobala, W and Dost, A and Taeger, D and Bergendorf, Ulf and Straif, K and Swuste, P and Kromhout, H},
  issn         = {1470-7926},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {384--391},
  publisher    = {BMJ Publishing Group},
  series       = {Occupational and Environmental Medicine},
  title        = {Exposure to inhalable dust and its cyclohexane soluble fraction since the 1970s in the rubber manufacturing industry in the European Union},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.2007.034470},
  volume       = {65},
  year         = {2008},
}