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Gamma-ray bursts and X-ray melting of material to form chondrules and planets

Duggan, P; McBreen, B; Carr, A J; Winston, E; Vaughan, G; Hanlon, L; McBreen, S; Metcalfe, S; Kvick, Åke LU and Terry, A E (2003) In Astronomy & Astrophysics 409(2). p.9-12
Abstract
Chondrules are millimeter sized objects of spherical to irregular shape that constitute the major component of chondritic meteorites that originate in the region between Mars and Jupiter and which fall to Earth. They appear to have solidified rapidly from molten or partially molten drops. The heat source that melted the chondrules remains uncertain. The intense radiation from a gamma-ray burst (GRB) is capable of melting material at distances up to 300 light years. These conditions were created in the laboratory for the first time when millimeter sized pellets were placed in a vacuum chamber in the white synchrotron beam at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The pellets were rapidly heated in the X-ray and gamma-ray... (More)
Chondrules are millimeter sized objects of spherical to irregular shape that constitute the major component of chondritic meteorites that originate in the region between Mars and Jupiter and which fall to Earth. They appear to have solidified rapidly from molten or partially molten drops. The heat source that melted the chondrules remains uncertain. The intense radiation from a gamma-ray burst (GRB) is capable of melting material at distances up to 300 light years. These conditions were created in the laboratory for the first time when millimeter sized pellets were placed in a vacuum chamber in the white synchrotron beam at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The pellets were rapidly heated in the X-ray and gamma-ray furnace to above 1400 degreesC melted and cooled. This process heats from the inside unlike normal furnaces. The melted spherical samples were examined with a range of techniques and found to have microstructural properties similar to the chondrules that come from meteorites. This experiment demonstrates that GRBs can melt precursor material to form chondrules that may subsequently influence the formation of planets. This work extends the field of laboratory astrophysics to include high power synchrotron sources. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
methods : laboratory, solar system : general, X-rays : general planetary systems : formation, gamma rays : bursts
in
Astronomy & Astrophysics
volume
409
issue
2
pages
9 - 12
publisher
EDP Sciences
external identifiers
  • scopus:0141958792
ISSN
0004-6361
DOI
10.1051/0004-6361:20031238
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
e6f7ae2a-1935-4d4c-9735-f3d78cf8ef65 (old id 121849)
date added to LUP
2007-07-13 09:13:22
date last changed
2018-05-29 12:28:09
@article{e6f7ae2a-1935-4d4c-9735-f3d78cf8ef65,
  abstract     = {Chondrules are millimeter sized objects of spherical to irregular shape that constitute the major component of chondritic meteorites that originate in the region between Mars and Jupiter and which fall to Earth. They appear to have solidified rapidly from molten or partially molten drops. The heat source that melted the chondrules remains uncertain. The intense radiation from a gamma-ray burst (GRB) is capable of melting material at distances up to 300 light years. These conditions were created in the laboratory for the first time when millimeter sized pellets were placed in a vacuum chamber in the white synchrotron beam at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The pellets were rapidly heated in the X-ray and gamma-ray furnace to above 1400 degreesC melted and cooled. This process heats from the inside unlike normal furnaces. The melted spherical samples were examined with a range of techniques and found to have microstructural properties similar to the chondrules that come from meteorites. This experiment demonstrates that GRBs can melt precursor material to form chondrules that may subsequently influence the formation of planets. This work extends the field of laboratory astrophysics to include high power synchrotron sources.},
  author       = {Duggan, P and McBreen, B and Carr, A J and Winston, E and Vaughan, G and Hanlon, L and McBreen, S and Metcalfe, S and Kvick, Åke and Terry, A E},
  issn         = {0004-6361},
  keyword      = {methods : laboratory,solar system : general,X-rays : general planetary systems : formation,gamma rays : bursts},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {9--12},
  publisher    = {EDP Sciences},
  series       = {Astronomy & Astrophysics},
  title        = {Gamma-ray bursts and X-ray melting of material to form chondrules and planets},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20031238},
  volume       = {409},
  year         = {2003},
}