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Two Liters a Day Keep the Doctor Away? Considerations on the Pathophysiology of Suboptimal Fluid Intake in the Common Population

Lang, Florian; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Lemetais, Guillaume and Melander, Olle LU (2017) In Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 42. p.483-494
Abstract

Suboptimal fluid intake may require enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin for the maintenance of adequate hydration. Enhanced copeptin levels (reflecting enhanced vasopressin levels) in 25% of the common population are associated with enhanced risk of metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and premature mortality. Vasopressin stimulates the release of glucocorticoids which in turn up-regulate the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). Moreover, dehydration upregulates the transcription factor NFAT5, which in... (More)

Suboptimal fluid intake may require enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin for the maintenance of adequate hydration. Enhanced copeptin levels (reflecting enhanced vasopressin levels) in 25% of the common population are associated with enhanced risk of metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and premature mortality. Vasopressin stimulates the release of glucocorticoids which in turn up-regulate the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). Moreover, dehydration upregulates the transcription factor NFAT5, which in turn stimulates SGK1 expression. SGK1 is activated by insulin, growth factors and oxidative stress via phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and mTOR. SGK1 is a powerful stimulator of Na+/K+-ATPase, carriers (e.g. the Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter NKCC, the NaCl cotransporter NCC, the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3, and the Na+ coupled glucose transporter SGLT1), and ion channels (e.g. the epithelial Na+ channel ENaC, the Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channel Orai1 with its stimulator STIM1, and diverse K+ channels). SGK1 further participates in the regulation of the transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-B NFκB, p53, cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), activator protein-1, and forkhead transcription factor FKHR-L1 (FOXO3a). Enhanced SGK1 activity fosters the development of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, thrombosis, stroke, inflammation including inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disease, cardiac fibrosis, proteinuria, renal failure as well as tumor growth. The present brief review makes the case that suboptimal fluid intake in the common population may enhance vasopressin and glucocorticoid levels thus up-regulating SGK1 expression and favouring the development of SGK1 related pathologies.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Cancer, Chronic kidney disease, Copeptin, Glucocorticoids, Metabolic syndrome, Vasopressin
in
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
volume
42
pages
483 - 494
publisher
Karger
external identifiers
  • scopus:85027171014
  • pmid:28787716
  • wos:000414970500009
ISSN
1420-4096
DOI
10.1159/000479640
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
1242a750-443b-4c55-9958-77a6d2de0ec5
date added to LUP
2017-09-04 13:50:23
date last changed
2018-01-21 04:24:14
@article{1242a750-443b-4c55-9958-77a6d2de0ec5,
  abstract     = {<p>Suboptimal fluid intake may require enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin for the maintenance of adequate hydration. Enhanced copeptin levels (reflecting enhanced vasopressin levels) in 25% of the common population are associated with enhanced risk of metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and premature mortality. Vasopressin stimulates the release of glucocorticoids which in turn up-regulate the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). Moreover, dehydration upregulates the transcription factor NFAT5, which in turn stimulates SGK1 expression. SGK1 is activated by insulin, growth factors and oxidative stress via phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and mTOR. SGK1 is a powerful stimulator of Na<sup>+</sup>/K<sup>+</sup>-ATPase, carriers (e.g. the Na<sup>+</sup>,K<sup>+</sup>,2Cl<sup>-</sup> cotransporter NKCC, the NaCl cotransporter NCC, the Na<sup>+</sup>/H<sup>+</sup> exchanger NHE3, and the Na<sup>+</sup> coupled glucose transporter SGLT1), and ion channels (e.g. the epithelial Na<sup>+</sup> channel ENaC, the Ca<sup>2+</sup> release activated Ca<sup>2+</sup> channel Orai1 with its stimulator STIM1, and diverse K<sup>+</sup> channels). SGK1 further participates in the regulation of the transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-B NFκB, p53, cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), activator protein-1, and forkhead transcription factor FKHR-L1 (FOXO3a). Enhanced SGK1 activity fosters the development of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, thrombosis, stroke, inflammation including inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disease, cardiac fibrosis, proteinuria, renal failure as well as tumor growth. The present brief review makes the case that suboptimal fluid intake in the common population may enhance vasopressin and glucocorticoid levels thus up-regulating SGK1 expression and favouring the development of SGK1 related pathologies.</p>},
  author       = {Lang, Florian and Guelinckx, Isabelle and Lemetais, Guillaume and Melander, Olle},
  issn         = {1420-4096},
  keyword      = {Cancer,Chronic kidney disease,Copeptin,Glucocorticoids,Metabolic syndrome,Vasopressin},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {08},
  pages        = {483--494},
  publisher    = {Karger},
  series       = {Kidney and Blood Pressure Research},
  title        = {Two Liters a Day Keep the Doctor Away? Considerations on the Pathophysiology of Suboptimal Fluid Intake in the Common Population},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000479640},
  volume       = {42},
  year         = {2017},
}