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Substituted Mo-V(Ti)-Te(Ce)-oxide M2 catalysts for propene ammoxidation

Häggblad, Robert LU ; Wagner, Jakob LU ; Deniau, B.; Millet, Jean-Marc M.; Holmberg, Johan LU ; Grasselli, R.K.; Hansen, Staffan LU and Andersson, Arne LU (2008) In Topics in Catalysis 50(1-4). p.52-65
Abstract
One of the most effective propane to acrylonitrile ammoxidation catalyst is comprised of the two phases M1 (orthorhombic) Mo7.5V1.5NbTeO29 and M2 (pseudo-hexagonal) Mo4V2Te2O20. Under reaction conditions, the two phases work in symbiosis with each other where M1 is the paraffin activating component and M2 is the olefin activating component. Since the catalytic improvement of either phase should result in an enhancement of the overall acrylonitrile yield, controlled substitution of certain elements in either or both phases might result in the desired improvement. Our current study concentrates on the partial substitutions of V with Ti and Te with Ce in the M2 phase. Ti substitution results in a considerable propene activity improvement,... (More)
One of the most effective propane to acrylonitrile ammoxidation catalyst is comprised of the two phases M1 (orthorhombic) Mo7.5V1.5NbTeO29 and M2 (pseudo-hexagonal) Mo4V2Te2O20. Under reaction conditions, the two phases work in symbiosis with each other where M1 is the paraffin activating component and M2 is the olefin activating component. Since the catalytic improvement of either phase should result in an enhancement of the overall acrylonitrile yield, controlled substitution of certain elements in either or both phases might result in the desired improvement. Our current study concentrates on the partial substitutions of V with Ti and Te with Ce in the M2 phase. Ti substitution results in a considerable propene activity improvement, whereas the selectivity to acrylonitrile is unaffected. Substitution with Ce, on the contrary, substantially improves the selectivity to acrylonitrile. Also, a minor improvement of the activity is notable. The acrylonitrile selectivity improvement is a result of better NH3 utilization and comes at the expense of reduced acrolein make. XRD reveals that all of the substituted compositions retain the M2 structure and essentially are monophasic. XANES recordings show for the bulk that the Mo is 6+, the V is 4+, or 4+ and 5+ when Ce is present, the Ti is 4+, the Ce is 3+, and the Te 4+ with some 6+ also present. According to the ESR data, in the M2 with Ce (7Te/3Ce) only 21% of the V is 4+, the remainder being 5+, which tentatively can be explained by the existence of some cation vacancies in the hexagonal channels. HRTEM imaging reveals little if any differences between the materials, all have the typical pseudo-hexagonal habit of the M2 phase and expose a 1-2 nm thick surface layer without any apparent long-range ordering. XPS data show that all catalysts, including the base, are highly enriched at the surface with Te at the expense of other metals. The 7Te/3Ce composition exhibits also substantial Ce surface enrichment. Moreover, the valences of the cations at the surface differ from the bulk in that for all fresh catalysts V is 5+ and Te is 6+ on the surface. Characterization by XPS of catalysts used in propene ammoxidation, reveals reduction of Te and, except when Ce is present, also Mo. Therefore, it might be inferred that the surfaces of the catalysts studied here are comprised essentially of one or a few monolayers of TeMoO or TeCeMoO on an interacting M2 crystalline base. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
ESR, SEM, HRTEM, Mo-V(Ti)-Te(Ce)-oxide catalysts, Propene, Ammoxidation, Acrylonitrile, XRD, M2-phase, XANES, XPS
in
Topics in Catalysis
volume
50
issue
1-4
pages
52 - 65
publisher
Kluwer
external identifiers
  • wos:000260319700006
  • scopus:55149094175
ISSN
1572-9028
DOI
10.1007/s11244-008-9111-2
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
ebdfba9b-25d6-4f72-9557-47876c4ca96c (old id 1274300)
date added to LUP
2008-12-17 10:38:12
date last changed
2017-01-01 05:56:46
@article{ebdfba9b-25d6-4f72-9557-47876c4ca96c,
  abstract     = {One of the most effective propane to acrylonitrile ammoxidation catalyst is comprised of the two phases M1 (orthorhombic) Mo7.5V1.5NbTeO29 and M2 (pseudo-hexagonal) Mo4V2Te2O20. Under reaction conditions, the two phases work in symbiosis with each other where M1 is the paraffin activating component and M2 is the olefin activating component. Since the catalytic improvement of either phase should result in an enhancement of the overall acrylonitrile yield, controlled substitution of certain elements in either or both phases might result in the desired improvement. Our current study concentrates on the partial substitutions of V with Ti and Te with Ce in the M2 phase. Ti substitution results in a considerable propene activity improvement, whereas the selectivity to acrylonitrile is unaffected. Substitution with Ce, on the contrary, substantially improves the selectivity to acrylonitrile. Also, a minor improvement of the activity is notable. The acrylonitrile selectivity improvement is a result of better NH3 utilization and comes at the expense of reduced acrolein make. XRD reveals that all of the substituted compositions retain the M2 structure and essentially are monophasic. XANES recordings show for the bulk that the Mo is 6+, the V is 4+, or 4+ and 5+ when Ce is present, the Ti is 4+, the Ce is 3+, and the Te 4+ with some 6+ also present. According to the ESR data, in the M2 with Ce (7Te/3Ce) only 21% of the V is 4+, the remainder being 5+, which tentatively can be explained by the existence of some cation vacancies in the hexagonal channels. HRTEM imaging reveals little if any differences between the materials, all have the typical pseudo-hexagonal habit of the M2 phase and expose a 1-2 nm thick surface layer without any apparent long-range ordering. XPS data show that all catalysts, including the base, are highly enriched at the surface with Te at the expense of other metals. The 7Te/3Ce composition exhibits also substantial Ce surface enrichment. Moreover, the valences of the cations at the surface differ from the bulk in that for all fresh catalysts V is 5+ and Te is 6+ on the surface. Characterization by XPS of catalysts used in propene ammoxidation, reveals reduction of Te and, except when Ce is present, also Mo. Therefore, it might be inferred that the surfaces of the catalysts studied here are comprised essentially of one or a few monolayers of TeMoO or TeCeMoO on an interacting M2 crystalline base.},
  author       = {Häggblad, Robert and Wagner, Jakob and Deniau, B. and Millet, Jean-Marc M. and Holmberg, Johan and Grasselli, R.K. and Hansen, Staffan and Andersson, Arne},
  issn         = {1572-9028},
  keyword      = {ESR,SEM,HRTEM,Mo-V(Ti)-Te(Ce)-oxide catalysts,Propene,Ammoxidation,Acrylonitrile,XRD,M2-phase,XANES,XPS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1-4},
  pages        = {52--65},
  publisher    = {Kluwer},
  series       = {Topics in Catalysis},
  title        = {Substituted Mo-V(Ti)-Te(Ce)-oxide M2 catalysts for propene ammoxidation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11244-008-9111-2},
  volume       = {50},
  year         = {2008},
}