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Low antibiotic resistance rates in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp but not in Enterobacter spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa : A prospective observational study in 14 Swedish ICUs over a 5-year period

Hanberger, H. ; Burman, L. G. ; Cars, O. ; Erlandsson, M. LU ; Gill, H. ; Nilsson, L. E. ; Nordlinder, D. and Walther, S. M. (2007) In Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 51(7). p.937-941
Abstract

Background: Intensive care units (ICUs) are hot zones for emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance because of frequent invasive procedures, antibiotic usage and transmission of bacteria. We report prospective data on antibiotic use and bacterial resistance from 14 academic and non-academic ICUs, participating in the ICU-STRAMA programme 1999-2003. Methods: The quantity of antibiotics delivered to each ICU was calculated as defined daily doses per 1000 occupied bed days (DDD1000). Specimens for culture were taken on clinical indications and only initial isolates were considered. Species-related breakpoints according to the Swedish Reference Group for Antibiotics were used. Antibiotic resistance was defined as the sum of... (More)

Background: Intensive care units (ICUs) are hot zones for emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance because of frequent invasive procedures, antibiotic usage and transmission of bacteria. We report prospective data on antibiotic use and bacterial resistance from 14 academic and non-academic ICUs, participating in the ICU-STRAMA programme 1999-2003. Methods: The quantity of antibiotics delivered to each ICU was calculated as defined daily doses per 1000 occupied bed days (DDD1000). Specimens for culture were taken on clinical indications and only initial isolates were considered. Species-related breakpoints according to the Swedish Reference Group for Antibiotics were used. Antibiotic resistance was defined as the sum of intermediate and resistant strains. Results: Mean antibiotic use increased from 1245 DDD1000 in 1999 to 1510 DDD1000 in 2003 (P = 0.11 for trend). Of Staphylococcus aureus, 0-1.8% were methicillin resistant (MRSA). A presumptive extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was found in <2.4% of Escherichia coli, based on cefotaxime susceptibility, except a peak in 2002 (4.6%). Cefotaxime resistance was found in 2.6-4.9% of Klebsiella spp. Rates of resistance among Enterobacter spp. to cefotaxime (20-33%) and among Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem (22-33%) and ciprofloxacin (5-21%) showed no time trend. Conclusion: MRSA and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp strains were few despite high total antibiotic consumption. This may be the result of a slow introduction of resistant strains into the ICUs, and good infection control. The cause of imipenem and ciprofloxacin resistance in P. aeruginosa could reflect the increased consumption of these agents plus spread of resistant clones.

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author
; ; ; ; ; ; and
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Anti-infective agents, Critical care, Cross infection, Multiple drug resistance
in
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
volume
51
issue
7
pages
937 - 941
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • scopus:34447302020
ISSN
0001-5172
DOI
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2007.01364.x
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
131a9480-8e93-4c71-a5c7-335869d904f8
date added to LUP
2020-04-16 17:01:58
date last changed
2021-01-06 06:38:57
@article{131a9480-8e93-4c71-a5c7-335869d904f8,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Intensive care units (ICUs) are hot zones for emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance because of frequent invasive procedures, antibiotic usage and transmission of bacteria. We report prospective data on antibiotic use and bacterial resistance from 14 academic and non-academic ICUs, participating in the ICU-STRAMA programme 1999-2003. Methods: The quantity of antibiotics delivered to each ICU was calculated as defined daily doses per 1000 occupied bed days (DDD<sub>1000</sub>). Specimens for culture were taken on clinical indications and only initial isolates were considered. Species-related breakpoints according to the Swedish Reference Group for Antibiotics were used. Antibiotic resistance was defined as the sum of intermediate and resistant strains. Results: Mean antibiotic use increased from 1245 DDD<sub>1000</sub> in 1999 to 1510 DDD<sub>1000</sub> in 2003 (P = 0.11 for trend). Of Staphylococcus aureus, 0-1.8% were methicillin resistant (MRSA). A presumptive extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was found in &lt;2.4% of Escherichia coli, based on cefotaxime susceptibility, except a peak in 2002 (4.6%). Cefotaxime resistance was found in 2.6-4.9% of Klebsiella spp. Rates of resistance among Enterobacter spp. to cefotaxime (20-33%) and among Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem (22-33%) and ciprofloxacin (5-21%) showed no time trend. Conclusion: MRSA and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp strains were few despite high total antibiotic consumption. This may be the result of a slow introduction of resistant strains into the ICUs, and good infection control. The cause of imipenem and ciprofloxacin resistance in P. aeruginosa could reflect the increased consumption of these agents plus spread of resistant clones.</p>},
  author       = {Hanberger, H. and Burman, L. G. and Cars, O. and Erlandsson, M. and Gill, H. and Nilsson, L. E. and Nordlinder, D. and Walther, S. M.},
  issn         = {0001-5172},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {937--941},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica},
  title        = {Low antibiotic resistance rates in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp but not in Enterobacter spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa : A prospective observational study in 14 Swedish ICUs over a 5-year period},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-6576.2007.01364.x},
  doi          = {10.1111/j.1399-6576.2007.01364.x},
  volume       = {51},
  year         = {2007},
}