Advanced

Schizophrenia and migration: a meta-analysis and review.

Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth LU and Selten, Jean-Paul (2005) In American Journal of Psychiatry 162(1). p.12-24
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The authors synthesize findings of previous studies implicating migration as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and provide a quantitative index of the associated effect size. METHOD: MEDLINE was searched for population-based incidence studies concerning migrants in English-language publications appearing between the years 1977 and 2003. Article bibliographies and an Australian database were cross-referenced. Studies were included if incidence reports provided numerators and denominators and if age correction was performed or could be performed by the authors. Relative risks for migrant groups were extracted or calculated for each study. Significant heterogeneity across studies indicated the need for a... (More)
OBJECTIVE: The authors synthesize findings of previous studies implicating migration as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and provide a quantitative index of the associated effect size. METHOD: MEDLINE was searched for population-based incidence studies concerning migrants in English-language publications appearing between the years 1977 and 2003. Article bibliographies and an Australian database were cross-referenced. Studies were included if incidence reports provided numerators and denominators and if age correction was performed or could be performed by the authors. Relative risks for migrant groups were extracted or calculated for each study. Significant heterogeneity across studies indicated the need for a mixed-effects meta-analytic model. RESULTS: The mean weighted relative risk for developing schizophrenia among first-generation migrants (40 effect sizes) was 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]=2.3–3.2). A separate analysis performed for second-generation migrants (seven effect sizes) yielded a relative risk of 4.5 (95% CI=1.5–13.1). An analysis performed for studies concerning both first- and second-generation migrants and studies that did not distinguish between generations (50 effect sizes) yielded a relative risk of 2.9 (95% CI=2.5–3.4). Subgroup comparisons yielded significantly greater effect sizes for migrants from developing versus developed countries (relative risk=3.3, 95% CI=2.8–3.9) and for migrants from areas where the majority of the population is black (relative risk=4.8, 95% CI=3.7–6.2) versus white and neither black nor white. CONCLUSIONS: A personal or family history of migration is an important risk factor for schizophrenia. The differential risk pattern across subgroups suggests a role for psychosocial adversity in the etiology of schizophrenia. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
American Journal of Psychiatry
volume
162
issue
1
pages
12 - 24
publisher
American Psychiatric Association
external identifiers
  • wos:000226262000003
  • pmid:15625195
  • scopus:11844301246
ISSN
1535-7228
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
cc9b954e-e468-48b3-8902-86f3a43179ec (old id 133380)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15625195&dopt=Abstract
http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/162/1/12
date added to LUP
2007-07-24 11:48:57
date last changed
2017-11-12 03:18:17
@article{cc9b954e-e468-48b3-8902-86f3a43179ec,
  abstract     = {OBJECTIVE: The authors synthesize findings of previous studies implicating migration as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and provide a quantitative index of the associated effect size. METHOD: MEDLINE was searched for population-based incidence studies concerning migrants in English-language publications appearing between the years 1977 and 2003. Article bibliographies and an Australian database were cross-referenced. Studies were included if incidence reports provided numerators and denominators and if age correction was performed or could be performed by the authors. Relative risks for migrant groups were extracted or calculated for each study. Significant heterogeneity across studies indicated the need for a mixed-effects meta-analytic model. RESULTS: The mean weighted relative risk for developing schizophrenia among first-generation migrants (40 effect sizes) was 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]=2.3–3.2). A separate analysis performed for second-generation migrants (seven effect sizes) yielded a relative risk of 4.5 (95% CI=1.5–13.1). An analysis performed for studies concerning both first- and second-generation migrants and studies that did not distinguish between generations (50 effect sizes) yielded a relative risk of 2.9 (95% CI=2.5–3.4). Subgroup comparisons yielded significantly greater effect sizes for migrants from developing versus developed countries (relative risk=3.3, 95% CI=2.8–3.9) and for migrants from areas where the majority of the population is black (relative risk=4.8, 95% CI=3.7–6.2) versus white and neither black nor white. CONCLUSIONS: A personal or family history of migration is an important risk factor for schizophrenia. The differential risk pattern across subgroups suggests a role for psychosocial adversity in the etiology of schizophrenia.},
  author       = {Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth and Selten, Jean-Paul},
  issn         = {1535-7228},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {12--24},
  publisher    = {American Psychiatric Association},
  series       = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
  title        = {Schizophrenia and migration: a meta-analysis and review.},
  volume       = {162},
  year         = {2005},
}