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Membrane extraction in environmental chemical analysis

Jönsson, Jan Åke LU (2007) 16th Central European Conference ECOpole 2007 In Proceedings of ECOpole 1(1-2). p.37-42
Abstract
Membrane extraction techniques permit the application of classical liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) chemistry to instrumental and automated operation. Various shortcomings of LLE are overcome by membrane extraction techniques as they use none or very little organic solvents, high enrichment factors can be obtained and there are no problems with emulsions. A three phase SLM system (aq/org/aq), where analytes are extracted from the aqueous sample into an organic liquid, immobilized in a porous hydrophobic membrane support, and further to a second aqueous phase, is suitable for the extraction of polar compounds (acidic or basic, charged, metals, etc.) and it is compatible with reversed phase HPLC. A two-phase system (aq/org) where analytes are... (More)
Membrane extraction techniques permit the application of classical liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) chemistry to instrumental and automated operation. Various shortcomings of LLE are overcome by membrane extraction techniques as they use none or very little organic solvents, high enrichment factors can be obtained and there are no problems with emulsions. A three phase SLM system (aq/org/aq), where analytes are extracted from the aqueous sample into an organic liquid, immobilized in a porous hydrophobic membrane support, and further to a second aqueous phase, is suitable for the extraction of polar compounds (acidic or basic, charged, metals, etc.) and it is compatible with reversed phase HPLC. A two-phase system (aq/org) where analytes are extracted into an organic solvent separated from the aqueous sample by a hydrophobic porous membrane is suitable for more hydrophobic analytes and is compatible with gas chromatography. The experimental format can be based on either flat membranes and on hollow fibre membranes in various ways. Using hollow fibers, it is possible to perform extractions for sample clean-up and enrichment with very cheap and simple equipment, leading to high enrichment factors (easily thousands of times) for ultra trace analysis. Membrane extraction can be a basis for environmental field sampling. Such sampling can be performed in two different regimes, with different purposes. One aim is to attempt a complete extraction of the analytes in a sample, in order to determine the total concentration of these analytes. This is similar to what is attempted with classical techniques such as LLS, and SPE (solid phase extraction). An alternative and complementary way of working is to attempt equilibrium between the sample and the sampler, with minimum disturbance of the sample. These are the principles of "equilibrium extraction through membranes" (ESTM) as recently was developed. This technique leads to the determination of the freely dissolved concentration lie not complexated or otherwise bound fraction) of the analyte. This is related to the bioavailability, fugacity and chemical potential of a pollutant in the sample and is therefore significant for the evaluation of S toxicity and transport processes of the pollutant in the environment, both for polar organic compounds, and for metal ions. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding
publication status
published
subject
keywords
speciation, hollow fiber, sampling, sample preparation, extraction, enrichment, free fraction
in
Proceedings of ECOpole
volume
1
issue
1-2
pages
37 - 42
publisher
Opole University
conference name
16th Central European Conference ECOpole 2007
external identifiers
  • wos:000253275900004
ISSN
1898-617X
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
33acc18e-cb6f-4072-8ba3-dde82f1169c3 (old id 1407485)
alternative location
http://tchie.uni.opole.pl/ecoproc07/key/Jonsson_07.pdf
date added to LUP
2009-05-29 15:49:14
date last changed
2016-04-16 05:36:05
@inproceedings{33acc18e-cb6f-4072-8ba3-dde82f1169c3,
  abstract     = {Membrane extraction techniques permit the application of classical liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) chemistry to instrumental and automated operation. Various shortcomings of LLE are overcome by membrane extraction techniques as they use none or very little organic solvents, high enrichment factors can be obtained and there are no problems with emulsions. A three phase SLM system (aq/org/aq), where analytes are extracted from the aqueous sample into an organic liquid, immobilized in a porous hydrophobic membrane support, and further to a second aqueous phase, is suitable for the extraction of polar compounds (acidic or basic, charged, metals, etc.) and it is compatible with reversed phase HPLC. A two-phase system (aq/org) where analytes are extracted into an organic solvent separated from the aqueous sample by a hydrophobic porous membrane is suitable for more hydrophobic analytes and is compatible with gas chromatography. The experimental format can be based on either flat membranes and on hollow fibre membranes in various ways. Using hollow fibers, it is possible to perform extractions for sample clean-up and enrichment with very cheap and simple equipment, leading to high enrichment factors (easily thousands of times) for ultra trace analysis. Membrane extraction can be a basis for environmental field sampling. Such sampling can be performed in two different regimes, with different purposes. One aim is to attempt a complete extraction of the analytes in a sample, in order to determine the total concentration of these analytes. This is similar to what is attempted with classical techniques such as LLS, and SPE (solid phase extraction). An alternative and complementary way of working is to attempt equilibrium between the sample and the sampler, with minimum disturbance of the sample. These are the principles of "equilibrium extraction through membranes" (ESTM) as recently was developed. This technique leads to the determination of the freely dissolved concentration lie not complexated or otherwise bound fraction) of the analyte. This is related to the bioavailability, fugacity and chemical potential of a pollutant in the sample and is therefore significant for the evaluation of S toxicity and transport processes of the pollutant in the environment, both for polar organic compounds, and for metal ions.},
  author       = {Jönsson, Jan Åke},
  booktitle    = {Proceedings of ECOpole},
  issn         = {1898-617X},
  keyword      = {speciation,hollow fiber,sampling,sample preparation,extraction,enrichment,free fraction},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1-2},
  pages        = {37--42},
  publisher    = {Opole University},
  title        = {Membrane extraction in environmental chemical analysis},
  volume       = {1},
  year         = {2007},
}