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Levels of bacterial endotoxin in air of animal houses determined with the use of gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry and Limulus test

Pomorska, Dorota; Larsson, Lennart LU ; Skorska, Czeslawa; Sitkowska, Jolanta and Dutkiewicz, Jacek (2007) In Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 14(2). p.291-298
Abstract
Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters in 22 animal houses and 3 hay storage barns and examined for the presence of bacterial endotoxin with the Limulus (LAL) test and the gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MSMS) technique, based on detection of 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH-FAs) as chemical markers of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide. The median concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined with LAL test in poultry houses, sheep sheds, piggeries, cow barns, and horse stables were respectively 62.49 mu g/m(3), 26.2 mu g/m(3), 3.8 mu g/m(3), 1.65 mu g/m(3), and 1. 14 mu g/m(3), while those determined with the GC-MSMS technique were respectively 1.06 mu g/m(3), 7.91 mu g/m(3), 0.2 mu g/m(3), 0.31 mu g/m(3), and 1.42... (More)
Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters in 22 animal houses and 3 hay storage barns and examined for the presence of bacterial endotoxin with the Limulus (LAL) test and the gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MSMS) technique, based on detection of 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH-FAs) as chemical markers of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide. The median concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined with LAL test in poultry houses, sheep sheds, piggeries, cow barns, and horse stables were respectively 62.49 mu g/m(3), 26.2 mu g/m(3), 3.8 mu g/m(3), 1.65 mu g/m(3), and 1. 14 mu g/m(3), while those determined with the GC-MSMS technique were respectively 1.06 mu g/m(3), 7.91 mu g/m(3), 0.2 mu g/m(3), 0.31 mu g/m(3), and 1.42 mu g/m(3). The median concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined with LAL test and GC-MSMS technique in hay storage barns were much smaller, 0.09 mu g/m(3) and 0.03 mu g/m(3), respectively. The concentrations of airborne endotoxin (LPS) detected with GC-MSMS method in the air of sheep sheds were significantly greater than in all other examined facilities, while those detected in hay storage barns were significantly smaller than in all other examined facilities (p<0.05). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined with LAL test and GC-MSMS analysis exceeded in most of animal houses examined (91% by each method) the threshold limit value for airborne endotoxin of 0.1 mu g/m(3) proposed by various authors. A significant correlation (p<0.05) between the concentrations of endotoxin determined with the LAL and GC-MSMS techniques was found in the air samples collected in poultry houses and sheep sheds, but not in other examined facilities. 3-OH FAs with C-14-C-18 chains were predominant in the air of the facilities under study. A significant correlation (p<0.05) was found between the concentrations of endotoxin determined with LAL test and the amounts of 3-OH FAs with C-14-C-16 chains. In conclusion, endotoxin in the concentrations detected in this study may present a respiratory hazard to both humans and livestock animals. (Less)
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author
organization
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Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
3-hydroxy fatty acids, Limulus test, spectrometry, mass, gas chromatography, animal houses, air, endotoxin, organic dust
in
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine
volume
14
issue
2
pages
291 - 298
publisher
Institute of Agricultural Medicine in Lublin, Poland
external identifiers
  • wos:000251983800018
  • scopus:39649106608
ISSN
1898-2263
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
a7f9dfd6-1467-4012-bc10-7b2ca485fbb1 (old id 1408436)
alternative location
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/14291.pdf
date added to LUP
2009-06-01 17:32:49
date last changed
2017-10-01 03:47:49
@article{a7f9dfd6-1467-4012-bc10-7b2ca485fbb1,
  abstract     = {Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters in 22 animal houses and 3 hay storage barns and examined for the presence of bacterial endotoxin with the Limulus (LAL) test and the gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MSMS) technique, based on detection of 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH-FAs) as chemical markers of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide. The median concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined with LAL test in poultry houses, sheep sheds, piggeries, cow barns, and horse stables were respectively 62.49 mu g/m(3), 26.2 mu g/m(3), 3.8 mu g/m(3), 1.65 mu g/m(3), and 1. 14 mu g/m(3), while those determined with the GC-MSMS technique were respectively 1.06 mu g/m(3), 7.91 mu g/m(3), 0.2 mu g/m(3), 0.31 mu g/m(3), and 1.42 mu g/m(3). The median concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined with LAL test and GC-MSMS technique in hay storage barns were much smaller, 0.09 mu g/m(3) and 0.03 mu g/m(3), respectively. The concentrations of airborne endotoxin (LPS) detected with GC-MSMS method in the air of sheep sheds were significantly greater than in all other examined facilities, while those detected in hay storage barns were significantly smaller than in all other examined facilities (p&lt;0.05). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined with LAL test and GC-MSMS analysis exceeded in most of animal houses examined (91% by each method) the threshold limit value for airborne endotoxin of 0.1 mu g/m(3) proposed by various authors. A significant correlation (p&lt;0.05) between the concentrations of endotoxin determined with the LAL and GC-MSMS techniques was found in the air samples collected in poultry houses and sheep sheds, but not in other examined facilities. 3-OH FAs with C-14-C-18 chains were predominant in the air of the facilities under study. A significant correlation (p&lt;0.05) was found between the concentrations of endotoxin determined with LAL test and the amounts of 3-OH FAs with C-14-C-16 chains. In conclusion, endotoxin in the concentrations detected in this study may present a respiratory hazard to both humans and livestock animals.},
  author       = {Pomorska, Dorota and Larsson, Lennart and Skorska, Czeslawa and Sitkowska, Jolanta and Dutkiewicz, Jacek},
  issn         = {1898-2263},
  keyword      = {3-hydroxy fatty acids,Limulus test,spectrometry,mass,gas chromatography,animal houses,air,endotoxin,organic dust},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {291--298},
  publisher    = {Institute of Agricultural Medicine in Lublin, Poland},
  series       = {Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine},
  title        = {Levels of bacterial endotoxin in air of animal houses determined with the use of gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry and Limulus test},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2007},
}