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Changes in clot lysis levels of reteplase and streptokinase following continuous wave ultrasound exposure, at ultrasound intensities following attenuation from the skull bone

Madsen-Härdig, Bjarne LU ; Carlson, Jonas LU and Roijer, Anders LU (2008) In BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 8(19).
Abstract
Background: Ultrasound (US) has been used to enhance thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of stroke. Considerable attenuation of US intensity is however noted if US is applied over the temporal bone. The aim of this study was therefore to explore possible changes in the effect of thrombolytic drugs during low-intensity, high-frequency continuous-wave ultrasound (CW-US) exposure. Methods: Clots were made from fresh venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers. Each clot was made from 1.4 ml blood and left to coagulate for 1 hour in a plastic test-tube. The thrombolytic drugs used were, 3600 IU streptokinase (SK) or 0.25 U reteplase (r-PA), which were mixed in 160 ml 0.9% NaCl solution. Continuous-wave US exposure was applied at a frequency... (More)
Background: Ultrasound (US) has been used to enhance thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of stroke. Considerable attenuation of US intensity is however noted if US is applied over the temporal bone. The aim of this study was therefore to explore possible changes in the effect of thrombolytic drugs during low-intensity, high-frequency continuous-wave ultrasound (CW-US) exposure. Methods: Clots were made from fresh venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers. Each clot was made from 1.4 ml blood and left to coagulate for 1 hour in a plastic test-tube. The thrombolytic drugs used were, 3600 IU streptokinase (SK) or 0.25 U reteplase (r-PA), which were mixed in 160 ml 0.9% NaCl solution. Continuous-wave US exposure was applied at a frequency of 1 MHz and intensities ranging from 0.0125 to 1.2 W/cm(2). For each thrombolytic drug (n = 2, SK and r-PA) and each intensity (n = 9) interventional clots (US-exposed, n = 6) were submerged in thrombolytic solution and exposed to CW-US while control clots (also submerged in thrombolytic solution, n = 6) were left unexposed to US. To evaluate the effect on clot lysis, the haemoglobin (Hb) released from each clot was measured every 20 min for 1 hour (20, 40 and 60 min). The Hb content (mg) released was estimated by spectrophotometry at 540 nm. The difference in effect on clot lysis was expressed as the difference in the amount of Hb released between pairs of US-exposed clots and control clots. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results: Continuous-wave ultrasound significantly decreased the effects of SK at intensities of 0.9 and 1.2 W/cm(2) at all times (P < 0.05). Continuous-wave ultrasound significantly increased the effects of r-PA on clot lysis following 20 min exposure at 0.9 W/cm(2) and at 1.2 W/cm(2), following 40 min exposure at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm(2), and following 60 min of exposure at 0.05 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm(2) (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: Increasing intensities of CW-US exposure resulted in increased clot lysis of r-PA-treated blood clots, but decreased clot lysis of SK-treated clots. (Less)
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type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
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BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
volume
8
issue
19
publisher
BioMed Central
external identifiers
  • wos:000266879100001
  • scopus:51649091657
ISSN
1471-2261
DOI
10.1186/1471-2261-8-19
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
98dc78dc-1aee-4103-ae0f-8e88bc1186aa (old id 1440504)
date added to LUP
2009-07-27 11:42:10
date last changed
2017-07-30 04:22:25
@article{98dc78dc-1aee-4103-ae0f-8e88bc1186aa,
  abstract     = {Background: Ultrasound (US) has been used to enhance thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of stroke. Considerable attenuation of US intensity is however noted if US is applied over the temporal bone. The aim of this study was therefore to explore possible changes in the effect of thrombolytic drugs during low-intensity, high-frequency continuous-wave ultrasound (CW-US) exposure. Methods: Clots were made from fresh venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers. Each clot was made from 1.4 ml blood and left to coagulate for 1 hour in a plastic test-tube. The thrombolytic drugs used were, 3600 IU streptokinase (SK) or 0.25 U reteplase (r-PA), which were mixed in 160 ml 0.9% NaCl solution. Continuous-wave US exposure was applied at a frequency of 1 MHz and intensities ranging from 0.0125 to 1.2 W/cm(2). For each thrombolytic drug (n = 2, SK and r-PA) and each intensity (n = 9) interventional clots (US-exposed, n = 6) were submerged in thrombolytic solution and exposed to CW-US while control clots (also submerged in thrombolytic solution, n = 6) were left unexposed to US. To evaluate the effect on clot lysis, the haemoglobin (Hb) released from each clot was measured every 20 min for 1 hour (20, 40 and 60 min). The Hb content (mg) released was estimated by spectrophotometry at 540 nm. The difference in effect on clot lysis was expressed as the difference in the amount of Hb released between pairs of US-exposed clots and control clots. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results: Continuous-wave ultrasound significantly decreased the effects of SK at intensities of 0.9 and 1.2 W/cm(2) at all times (P &lt; 0.05). Continuous-wave ultrasound significantly increased the effects of r-PA on clot lysis following 20 min exposure at 0.9 W/cm(2) and at 1.2 W/cm(2), following 40 min exposure at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm(2), and following 60 min of exposure at 0.05 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm(2) (all P &lt; 0.05). Conclusion: Increasing intensities of CW-US exposure resulted in increased clot lysis of r-PA-treated blood clots, but decreased clot lysis of SK-treated clots.},
  author       = {Madsen-Härdig, Bjarne and Carlson, Jonas and Roijer, Anders},
  issn         = {1471-2261},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {19},
  publisher    = {BioMed Central},
  series       = {BMC Cardiovascular Disorders},
  title        = {Changes in clot lysis levels of reteplase and streptokinase following continuous wave ultrasound exposure, at ultrasound intensities following attenuation from the skull bone},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-8-19},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2008},
}