Advanced

GAD Antibody Positivity Predicts Type 2 Diabetes in an Adult Population

Lundgren, Virve M.; Isomaa, Bo; Lyssenko, Valeriya LU ; Laurila, Esa LU ; Korhonen, Pasi; Groop, Leif LU and Tuomi, Tiinamaija (2010) In Diabetes 59(2). p.416-422
Abstract
OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the significance of GAD antibodies (GADAs) and family history for type 1 diabetes (FHT1) or type 2 diabetes (FHT2) in nondiabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-GADAs were analyzed in 4,976 nondiabetic relatives of type 2 diabetic patients or control subjects from Finland. Altogether, 289 (5.9%) were GADA(+)-a total of 253 GADA(+) and 2,511 GADA(-) subjects participated in repeated oral glucose tolerance tests during a median time of 8.1 years. The risk of progression to diabetes was assessed using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS-Subjects within the highest quartile of GADA(+) (GADA(high)(+)) had more often first-degree FHT1 (29.2 vs. 7.9%, P < 0.00001) and GADA(+) type 2 diabetic (21.3 vs. 13.7%, P =... (More)
OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the significance of GAD antibodies (GADAs) and family history for type 1 diabetes (FHT1) or type 2 diabetes (FHT2) in nondiabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-GADAs were analyzed in 4,976 nondiabetic relatives of type 2 diabetic patients or control subjects from Finland. Altogether, 289 (5.9%) were GADA(+)-a total of 253 GADA(+) and 2,511 GADA(-) subjects participated in repeated oral glucose tolerance tests during a median time of 8.1 years. The risk of progression to diabetes was assessed using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS-Subjects within the highest quartile of GADA(+) (GADA(high)(+)) had more often first-degree FHT1 (29.2 vs. 7.9%, P < 0.00001) and GADA(+) type 2 diabetic (21.3 vs. 13.7%, P = 0.002) or nondiabetic (26.4 vs. 13.3%, P = 0.010) relatives than GADA(-) subjects. During the follow-up, the GADA(+) subjects developed diabetes significantly more often than the GADA(-) subjects (36/253 [14.2%] vs. 134/2,511 [5.3%], P < 0.00001). GADA(high)(+) conferred a 4.9-fold increased risk of diabetes (95% CI 2.8-8.5) compared with GADA(-)-seroconversion to positive during the follow-up was associated with 6.5-fold (2.8-15.2) and first-degree FHT1 with 2.2-fold (1.2-4.1) risk of diabetes. Only three subjects developed type 1 diabetes, and others had a non-insulin-dependent phenotype 1 year after diagnosis. GADA(+) and GADA(-) subjects did not clinically differ at baseline, but they were leaner and less insulin resistant after the diagnosis of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS-GADA positivity clusters in families with type 1 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. GADA positivity predicts diabetes independently of family history of diabetes, and this risk was further increased with high GADA concentrations. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Diabetes
volume
59
issue
2
pages
416 - 422
publisher
American Diabetes Association Inc.
external identifiers
  • wos:000274435900012
  • scopus:77449143964
ISSN
1939-327X
DOI
10.2337/db09-0747
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
f669a30e-a8b2-419d-88ec-e40993438e13 (old id 1568953)
date added to LUP
2010-03-17 11:32:54
date last changed
2018-05-29 10:25:43
@article{f669a30e-a8b2-419d-88ec-e40993438e13,
  abstract     = {OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the significance of GAD antibodies (GADAs) and family history for type 1 diabetes (FHT1) or type 2 diabetes (FHT2) in nondiabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-GADAs were analyzed in 4,976 nondiabetic relatives of type 2 diabetic patients or control subjects from Finland. Altogether, 289 (5.9%) were GADA(+)-a total of 253 GADA(+) and 2,511 GADA(-) subjects participated in repeated oral glucose tolerance tests during a median time of 8.1 years. The risk of progression to diabetes was assessed using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS-Subjects within the highest quartile of GADA(+) (GADA(high)(+)) had more often first-degree FHT1 (29.2 vs. 7.9%, P &lt; 0.00001) and GADA(+) type 2 diabetic (21.3 vs. 13.7%, P = 0.002) or nondiabetic (26.4 vs. 13.3%, P = 0.010) relatives than GADA(-) subjects. During the follow-up, the GADA(+) subjects developed diabetes significantly more often than the GADA(-) subjects (36/253 [14.2%] vs. 134/2,511 [5.3%], P &lt; 0.00001). GADA(high)(+) conferred a 4.9-fold increased risk of diabetes (95% CI 2.8-8.5) compared with GADA(-)-seroconversion to positive during the follow-up was associated with 6.5-fold (2.8-15.2) and first-degree FHT1 with 2.2-fold (1.2-4.1) risk of diabetes. Only three subjects developed type 1 diabetes, and others had a non-insulin-dependent phenotype 1 year after diagnosis. GADA(+) and GADA(-) subjects did not clinically differ at baseline, but they were leaner and less insulin resistant after the diagnosis of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS-GADA positivity clusters in families with type 1 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. GADA positivity predicts diabetes independently of family history of diabetes, and this risk was further increased with high GADA concentrations.},
  author       = {Lundgren, Virve M. and Isomaa, Bo and Lyssenko, Valeriya and Laurila, Esa and Korhonen, Pasi and Groop, Leif and Tuomi, Tiinamaija},
  issn         = {1939-327X},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {416--422},
  publisher    = {American Diabetes Association Inc.},
  series       = {Diabetes},
  title        = {GAD Antibody Positivity Predicts Type 2 Diabetes in an Adult Population},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db09-0747},
  volume       = {59},
  year         = {2010},
}