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Microwave CMOS VCOs and Front-Ends - using integrated passives on-chip and on-carrier

Törmänen, Markus LU (2010) 25.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

De ökande kraven på högre datahastigheter inom trådlös kommunikation ställer allt högre krav på både radiosändare och mottagare, då dessa behöver utnyttja fler frekvensband med större bandbredd vid högre frekvenser. Fokus i denna avhandling ligger på högfrekvensdelen av radiomottagaren, som består av lågbrusförstärkare, blandare, och

oscillatorer vid mikrovågsfrekvenser.

Traditionellt har mikrovågselektronik använt sig av exklusiva och dyra halvledarteknologier (III-V material). Den snabba elektronikutvecklingen för konsumentprodukter (t.ex. TV-spelkonsoler) har det senaste årtiondet påskyndat utvecklingen av den kiselbaserade CMOS teknologin. Detta har lett till små och snabba... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

De ökande kraven på högre datahastigheter inom trådlös kommunikation ställer allt högre krav på både radiosändare och mottagare, då dessa behöver utnyttja fler frekvensband med större bandbredd vid högre frekvenser. Fokus i denna avhandling ligger på högfrekvensdelen av radiomottagaren, som består av lågbrusförstärkare, blandare, och

oscillatorer vid mikrovågsfrekvenser.

Traditionellt har mikrovågselektronik använt sig av exklusiva och dyra halvledarteknologier (III-V material). Den snabba elektronikutvecklingen för konsumentprodukter (t.ex. TV-spelkonsoler) har det senaste årtiondet påskyndat utvecklingen av den kiselbaserade CMOS teknologin. Detta har lett till små och snabba transistorer (hög fT och fmax) med låg brusfaktor. Samtidigt tål transistorerna inte så höga spänningar och den lägre matningspänningen har tyvärr en negativ effekt på linjäriteten och det dynamiska området. Trots detta är dagens moderna CMOS-teknologi lämplig

för många mikrovågs- och även millimetervågstillämpningar.

Ofta begränsar förlusterna (på grund av lågt Q-värde) i de passiva komponenterna kretsens prestanda vid högre frekvenser. Speciellt för induktanser i en standard CMOS process bidrar den elektromagnetiska kopplingen till substratet till ett lägre Q-värde. Genom att flytta de passiva komponenterna från chipet till en bärare med låga förluster

kan Q-värdet förbättras avsevärt. I denna avhandling presenteras kretsar med lågbrusförstärkare, blandare och oscillatorer i CMOS-teknologi på mikrovågsfrekvenser. En del av kretsarna har monterats på bärare med induktanser och baluner med låga förluster.

Avhandlingen börjar med en introduktion till trådlös kommunikation, arkitekturer för mottagare, blocken i mottagaren, bärarteknologi med låga förluster, och följs av de sex inkluderade vetenskapliga artiklarna. (Less)
Abstract
The increasing demand for high data rates in wireless communication systems is increasing the requirements on the transceiver front-ends, as they are pushed to utilize more and wider bands at higher frequencies. The work in this thesis is focused on receiver front-ends composed of Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs), Mixers, and Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs) operating at microwave frequencies.

Traditionally, microwave electronics has used exclusive and more expensive semiconductor technologies (III-V materials). However, the rapid development of consumer electronics (e.g. video game consoles) the last decade has pushed the silicon CMOS IC technology towards even smaller feature sizes. This has resulted in high speed transistors... (More)
The increasing demand for high data rates in wireless communication systems is increasing the requirements on the transceiver front-ends, as they are pushed to utilize more and wider bands at higher frequencies. The work in this thesis is focused on receiver front-ends composed of Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs), Mixers, and Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs) operating at microwave frequencies.

Traditionally, microwave electronics has used exclusive and more expensive semiconductor technologies (III-V materials). However, the rapid development of consumer electronics (e.g. video game consoles) the last decade has pushed the silicon CMOS IC technology towards even smaller feature sizes. This has resulted in high speed transistors (high fT and fmax) with low noise figures. However, as the breakdown voltages have decreased, a lower supply voltage must be used, which has had a negative impact on linearity and dynamic range. Nonetheless, todays downscaled CMOS technology is a feasible alternative for many microwave and even millimeter

wave applications.

The low quality factor (Q) of passive components on-chip usually limits the high frequency performance. For inductors realized in a standard CMOS process the substrate coupling results in a degraded Q. The quality factor can, however, be improved by moving the passive components off-chip and integrating them on a low loss carrier. This thesis therefore features microwave front-end and VCO designs in CMOS, where some designs have been flip-chip mounted on carriers featuring high Q inductors and low loss baluns. The thesis starts with an introduction to wireless communication,

receiver architectures, front-end receiver blocks, and low loss carrier technology, followed by the included papers.

The six included papers show the capability of CMOS and carrier technology at microwave frequencies: Papers II, III, and VI demonstrate fully integrated CMOS circuit designs. An LC-VCO using an accumulation mode varactor is presented in Paper II, a QVCO using 4-bit switched tuning is shown in Paper III, and a quadrature receiver front-end (including QVCO) is demonstrated in paper VI. Papers I and IV demonstrate receiver front-ends using low loss baluns on carrier for the LO and RF signals. Paper IV also includes a front-end using single-ended RF input which is converted

to differential form in a novel merged LNA and balun. A VCO demonstrating

the benefits of a high Q inductor on carrier is presented in Paper V. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Halonen, Kari, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
VCO, mixer, microwave, LNA, CMOS, front-end, System-on-Package
volume
25
pages
119 pages
publisher
Department of Electrical and Information Technology, Lund University
defense location
Room E:1406, E-building, John Ericssons väg 4, Lund University Faculty of Engineering
defense date
2010-05-18 10:15
ISSN
1654-790X
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
69abb595-b1cf-47c2-a3f0-58a84d95dec8 (old id 1585703)
date added to LUP
2010-04-20 09:51:21
date last changed
2018-05-29 11:40:36
@phdthesis{69abb595-b1cf-47c2-a3f0-58a84d95dec8,
  abstract     = {The increasing demand for high data rates in wireless communication systems is increasing the requirements on the transceiver front-ends, as they are pushed to utilize more and wider bands at higher frequencies. The work in this thesis is focused on receiver front-ends composed of Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs), Mixers, and Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs) operating at microwave frequencies.<br/><br>
Traditionally, microwave electronics has used exclusive and more expensive semiconductor technologies (III-V materials). However, the rapid development of consumer electronics (e.g. video game consoles) the last decade has pushed the silicon CMOS IC technology towards even smaller feature sizes. This has resulted in high speed transistors (high fT and fmax) with low noise figures. However, as the breakdown voltages have decreased, a lower supply voltage must be used, which has had a negative impact on linearity and dynamic range. Nonetheless, todays downscaled CMOS technology is a feasible alternative for many microwave and even millimeter<br/><br>
wave applications.<br/><br>
The low quality factor (Q) of passive components on-chip usually limits the high frequency performance. For inductors realized in a standard CMOS process the substrate coupling results in a degraded Q. The quality factor can, however, be improved by moving the passive components off-chip and integrating them on a low loss carrier. This thesis therefore features microwave front-end and VCO designs in CMOS, where some designs have been flip-chip mounted on carriers featuring high Q inductors and low loss baluns. The thesis starts with an introduction to wireless communication,<br/><br>
receiver architectures, front-end receiver blocks, and low loss carrier technology, followed by the included papers.<br/><br>
The six included papers show the capability of CMOS and carrier technology at microwave frequencies: Papers II, III, and VI demonstrate fully integrated CMOS circuit designs. An LC-VCO using an accumulation mode varactor is presented in Paper II, a QVCO using 4-bit switched tuning is shown in Paper III, and a quadrature receiver front-end (including QVCO) is demonstrated in paper VI. Papers I and IV demonstrate receiver front-ends using low loss baluns on carrier for the LO and RF signals. Paper IV also includes a front-end using single-ended RF input which is converted<br/><br>
to differential form in a novel merged LNA and balun. A VCO demonstrating<br/><br>
the benefits of a high Q inductor on carrier is presented in Paper V.},
  author       = {Törmänen, Markus},
  issn         = {1654-790X},
  keyword      = {VCO,mixer,microwave,LNA,CMOS,front-end,System-on-Package},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {119},
  publisher    = {Department of Electrical and Information Technology, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Microwave CMOS VCOs and Front-Ends - using integrated passives on-chip and on-carrier},
  volume       = {25},
  year         = {2010},
}