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Induction of Autophagy by Cystatin C: A Mechanism That Protects Murine Primary Cortical Neurons and Neuronal Cell Lines

Tizon, Belen; Sahoo, Susmita; Yu, Haung; Gauthier, Sebastien; Kumar, Asok R.; Mohan, Panaiyur; Figliola, Matthew; Pawlik, Monika; Grubb, Anders LU and Uchiyama, Yasuo, et al. (2010) In PLoS ONE 5(3).
Abstract
Cystatin C (CysC) expression in the brain is elevated in human patients with epilepsy, in animal models of neurodegenerative conditions, and in response to injury, but whether up-regulated CysC expression is a manifestation of neurodegeneration or a cellular repair response is not understood. This study demonstrates that human CysC is neuroprotective in cultures exposed to cytotoxic challenges, including nutritional-deprivation, colchicine, staurosporine, and oxidative stress. While CysC is a cysteine protease inhibitor, cathepsin B inhibition was not required for the neuroprotective action of CysC. Cells responded to CysC by inducing fully functional autophagy via the mTOR pathway, leading to enhanced proteolytic clearance of autophagy... (More)
Cystatin C (CysC) expression in the brain is elevated in human patients with epilepsy, in animal models of neurodegenerative conditions, and in response to injury, but whether up-regulated CysC expression is a manifestation of neurodegeneration or a cellular repair response is not understood. This study demonstrates that human CysC is neuroprotective in cultures exposed to cytotoxic challenges, including nutritional-deprivation, colchicine, staurosporine, and oxidative stress. While CysC is a cysteine protease inhibitor, cathepsin B inhibition was not required for the neuroprotective action of CysC. Cells responded to CysC by inducing fully functional autophagy via the mTOR pathway, leading to enhanced proteolytic clearance of autophagy substrates by lysosomes. Neuroprotective effects of CysC were prevented by inhibiting autophagy with beclin 1 siRNA or 3-methyladenine. Our findings show that CysC plays a protective role under conditions of neuronal challenge by inducing autophagy via mTOR inhibition and are consistent with CysC being neuroprotective in neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, modulation of CysC expression has therapeutic implications for stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. (Less)
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PLoS ONE
volume
5
issue
3
publisher
Public Library of Science
external identifiers
  • wos:000275894400020
  • scopus:77956475769
ISSN
1932-6203
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0009819
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English
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yes
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65177dfe-3a80-4062-bc29-d3e47b38b07a (old id 1587292)
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2010-04-26 15:50:08
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@article{65177dfe-3a80-4062-bc29-d3e47b38b07a,
  abstract     = {Cystatin C (CysC) expression in the brain is elevated in human patients with epilepsy, in animal models of neurodegenerative conditions, and in response to injury, but whether up-regulated CysC expression is a manifestation of neurodegeneration or a cellular repair response is not understood. This study demonstrates that human CysC is neuroprotective in cultures exposed to cytotoxic challenges, including nutritional-deprivation, colchicine, staurosporine, and oxidative stress. While CysC is a cysteine protease inhibitor, cathepsin B inhibition was not required for the neuroprotective action of CysC. Cells responded to CysC by inducing fully functional autophagy via the mTOR pathway, leading to enhanced proteolytic clearance of autophagy substrates by lysosomes. Neuroprotective effects of CysC were prevented by inhibiting autophagy with beclin 1 siRNA or 3-methyladenine. Our findings show that CysC plays a protective role under conditions of neuronal challenge by inducing autophagy via mTOR inhibition and are consistent with CysC being neuroprotective in neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, modulation of CysC expression has therapeutic implications for stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders.},
  author       = {Tizon, Belen and Sahoo, Susmita and Yu, Haung and Gauthier, Sebastien and Kumar, Asok R. and Mohan, Panaiyur and Figliola, Matthew and Pawlik, Monika and Grubb, Anders and Uchiyama, Yasuo and Bandyopadhyay, Urmi and Cuervo, Ana Maria and Nixon, Ralph A. and Levy, Efrat},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  publisher    = {Public Library of Science},
  series       = {PLoS ONE},
  title        = {Induction of Autophagy by Cystatin C: A Mechanism That Protects Murine Primary Cortical Neurons and Neuronal Cell Lines},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009819},
  volume       = {5},
  year         = {2010},
}