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Kinematics of flight and the relationship to the vortex wake of a Pallas' long tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina).

Wolf, Marta LU ; Johansson, Christoffer LU ; von Busse, Rhea; Winter, York and Hedenström, Anders LU (2010) In Journal of Experimental Biology 213(12). p.2142-2153
Abstract
To obtain a full understanding of the aerodynamics of animal flight, the movement of the wings, the kinematics, needs to be connected to the wake left behind the animal. Here the detailed 3D wingbeat kinematics of bats, Glossophaga soricina, flying in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (1-7 m s(-1)) was determined from high-speed video. The results were compared with the wake geometry and quantitative wake measurements obtained simultaneously to the kinematics. The wingbeat kinematics varied gradually with flight speed and reflected the changes observed in the wake of the bats. In particular, several of the kinematic parameters reflected the differences in the function of the upstroke at low and high flight speeds. At lower flight... (More)
To obtain a full understanding of the aerodynamics of animal flight, the movement of the wings, the kinematics, needs to be connected to the wake left behind the animal. Here the detailed 3D wingbeat kinematics of bats, Glossophaga soricina, flying in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (1-7 m s(-1)) was determined from high-speed video. The results were compared with the wake geometry and quantitative wake measurements obtained simultaneously to the kinematics. The wingbeat kinematics varied gradually with flight speed and reflected the changes observed in the wake of the bats. In particular, several of the kinematic parameters reflected the differences in the function of the upstroke at low and high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds the bats use a pitch-up rotation to produce a backward flick which creates thrust and some weight support. At higher speeds this mechanism disappears and the upstroke generates weight support but no thrust. This is reflected by the changes in e.g. angle of attack, span ratio, camber and downstroke ratio. We also determined how different parameters vary throughout a wingbeat over the flight speeds studied. Both the camber and the angle of attack varied over the wingbeat differently at different speeds, suggesting active control of these parameters to adjust to the changing aerodynamic conditions. This study of the kinematics strongly indicates that the flight of bats is governed by an unsteady high-lift mechanism at low flight speeds and points to differences between birds and bats. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Wing: anatomy & histology, Chiroptera: physiology, Biomechanics: physiology, Flight, Predatory Behavior: physiology, Animal: physiology
in
Journal of Experimental Biology
volume
213
issue
12
pages
2142 - 2153
publisher
The Company of Biologists Ltd
external identifiers
  • wos:000278175700023
  • scopus:77953061983
ISSN
1477-9145
DOI
10.1242/jeb.029777
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
9a4f58c2-5419-47d9-afde-af8757fedc95 (old id 1626514)
date added to LUP
2010-09-03 12:42:35
date last changed
2018-05-29 09:46:07
@article{9a4f58c2-5419-47d9-afde-af8757fedc95,
  abstract     = {To obtain a full understanding of the aerodynamics of animal flight, the movement of the wings, the kinematics, needs to be connected to the wake left behind the animal. Here the detailed 3D wingbeat kinematics of bats, Glossophaga soricina, flying in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (1-7 m s(-1)) was determined from high-speed video. The results were compared with the wake geometry and quantitative wake measurements obtained simultaneously to the kinematics. The wingbeat kinematics varied gradually with flight speed and reflected the changes observed in the wake of the bats. In particular, several of the kinematic parameters reflected the differences in the function of the upstroke at low and high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds the bats use a pitch-up rotation to produce a backward flick which creates thrust and some weight support. At higher speeds this mechanism disappears and the upstroke generates weight support but no thrust. This is reflected by the changes in e.g. angle of attack, span ratio, camber and downstroke ratio. We also determined how different parameters vary throughout a wingbeat over the flight speeds studied. Both the camber and the angle of attack varied over the wingbeat differently at different speeds, suggesting active control of these parameters to adjust to the changing aerodynamic conditions. This study of the kinematics strongly indicates that the flight of bats is governed by an unsteady high-lift mechanism at low flight speeds and points to differences between birds and bats.},
  author       = {Wolf, Marta and Johansson, Christoffer and von Busse, Rhea and Winter, York and Hedenström, Anders},
  issn         = {1477-9145},
  keyword      = {Wing: anatomy & histology,Chiroptera: physiology,Biomechanics: physiology,Flight,Predatory Behavior: physiology,Animal: physiology},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {2142--2153},
  publisher    = {The Company of Biologists Ltd},
  series       = {Journal of Experimental Biology},
  title        = {Kinematics of flight and the relationship to the vortex wake of a Pallas' long tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina).},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.029777},
  volume       = {213},
  year         = {2010},
}