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Aerosol Measurements as Applied for Exposure Characterization

Dahl, Andreas LU (2011)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Det är angeläget att motverka ohälsa. En del av detta kan uppnås genom att minska risker. Syftet med denna avhandling är att ge metoder för karaktärisering av exponering för inhalerbara substanser som kan ge negativa hälsoeffekter.

Gaser och luftburna partiklar kan orsaka negativa hälsoeffekter. Andningsorganen är särskilt känsliga och lungorna är en viktig upptagsväg för främmande ämnen. Isocyanater är en grupp ämnen som ofta ger problem, inte bara på grund av deras giftighet, utan också på grund av den omfattande användningen och termisk instabilitet. Exponering för emissioner från väg och järnväg, har små hälsoeffekter på individuell nivå i de flesta fall, men summan får betydelse på... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Det är angeläget att motverka ohälsa. En del av detta kan uppnås genom att minska risker. Syftet med denna avhandling är att ge metoder för karaktärisering av exponering för inhalerbara substanser som kan ge negativa hälsoeffekter.

Gaser och luftburna partiklar kan orsaka negativa hälsoeffekter. Andningsorganen är särskilt känsliga och lungorna är en viktig upptagsväg för främmande ämnen. Isocyanater är en grupp ämnen som ofta ger problem, inte bara på grund av deras giftighet, utan också på grund av den omfattande användningen och termisk instabilitet. Exponering för emissioner från väg och järnväg, har små hälsoeffekter på individuell nivå i de flesta fall, men summan får betydelse på befolkningsnivå. Kartläggning av källor till och exponering för aerosol i hushåll är sparsamt undersökt och det finns ett behov av att bedöma och förbättra luftkvaliteten i folks hem.

Under hela avhandlingsarbetet har många olika mätmetoder har använts för mätning av luftburna partiklar. Bland de avgörande faktorerna för val av metod har noggrannhet och tidsupplösning haft hög prioritet.

Vid fraktionerad provtagning av flyktiga ämnen som förekommer både i gas och partiklar är felkaraktärisering av partioneringen vanlig. Felen kan undertryckas genom optimering av provtagnings-utrustningen. De däck som används under vintern i nordiska länderna genererar nanopartiklar och vinterdäck med dubbar slipar ner vägbeläggning. Det genererade dammet gör att gränsvärden för PM10 överskrids i tätbebyggda områden. Utsläpp från järnväg förorsakar höga partikelhalter på de underjordiska stationerna vid Arlanda. På stationerna vid marknivå späds utsläppen ut effektivt och snabbt, vilket gör att gränsvärden inte överskrids. Med miniatyriserade instrument kombinerade med loggbok är det möjligt att särskilja olika källor till luftburna partiklar och att uppskatta exponering. (Less)
Abstract
It is important to decrease the burden of disease. This is in part achieved by decreasing risks. The aim of this thesis is to provide a methodology for the characterization of aerosol exposure, which may lead to negative health effects.

Gases and airborne particles may cause negative health effects and the respiratory system is exceptional sensitive. Isocyanate is one group of substances that are problematic, not only because of their toxicity but also because of their extensive usage and their thermal instability. Exposure to aerosol emission from traffic and railroad has minor health effects on individual level but the sum have effects on population level. Aerosol source and exposure mapping in household environments has been... (More)
It is important to decrease the burden of disease. This is in part achieved by decreasing risks. The aim of this thesis is to provide a methodology for the characterization of aerosol exposure, which may lead to negative health effects.

Gases and airborne particles may cause negative health effects and the respiratory system is exceptional sensitive. Isocyanate is one group of substances that are problematic, not only because of their toxicity but also because of their extensive usage and their thermal instability. Exposure to aerosol emission from traffic and railroad has minor health effects on individual level but the sum have effects on population level. Aerosol source and exposure mapping in household environments has been sparsely investigated and there is a need to assess and improve air quality in people’s home.

In the research presented this thesis, many different measurement techniques have been used. Among the decisive factors for choice of methodology, accuracy and temporal resolution have had high priority.

Special attention has to be paid to aerosol sampling of substances that occur in both gas and particles if accuracy in gas/particle partitioning is desired. The tires that are used during the winter in Nordic countries emit nanoparticles and winter tires with studs grind down the road pavement. The dust that is generated causes the PM10 air quality limits to be exceeded. The railway emissions cause high particle concentration levels at the enclosed subsurface station at Arlanda Airport. At the ground level station, the emissions are efficiently and rapidly diluted and air quality limits were not exceeded at these stations. With miniaturized instruments combined with logbooks, it is possible to distinguish different airborne particle sources and estimate the exposure. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Koch, Wolfgang, Fraunhofer-Institut
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
railroad, indoor air, environment, occupational health, exposure, isocyanate, airborne particles, station, traffic
pages
110 pages
defense location
Auditorium (Stora Hörsalen), Ingvar Kamprad Design Center (IKDC), Sölvegatan 26, Lund University Faculty of Engineering
defense date
2011-02-18 09:15
ISSN
1650-9773
ISBN
978-91-7473-067-8
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
2d8f3922-5f92-4630-a34f-015aa1513f26 (old id 1768591)
date added to LUP
2011-01-24 14:54:47
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:00
@phdthesis{2d8f3922-5f92-4630-a34f-015aa1513f26,
  abstract     = {It is important to decrease the burden of disease. This is in part achieved by decreasing risks. The aim of this thesis is to provide a methodology for the characterization of aerosol exposure, which may lead to negative health effects.<br/><br>
Gases and airborne particles may cause negative health effects and the respiratory system is exceptional sensitive. Isocyanate is one group of substances that are problematic, not only because of their toxicity but also because of their extensive usage and their thermal instability. Exposure to aerosol emission from traffic and railroad has minor health effects on individual level but the sum have effects on population level. Aerosol source and exposure mapping in household environments has been sparsely investigated and there is a need to assess and improve air quality in people’s home. <br/><br>
In the research presented this thesis, many different measurement techniques have been used. Among the decisive factors for choice of methodology, accuracy and temporal resolution have had high priority. <br/><br>
Special attention has to be paid to aerosol sampling of substances that occur in both gas and particles if accuracy in gas/particle partitioning is desired. The tires that are used during the winter in Nordic countries emit nanoparticles and winter tires with studs grind down the road pavement. The dust that is generated causes the PM10 air quality limits to be exceeded. The railway emissions cause high particle concentration levels at the enclosed subsurface station at Arlanda Airport. At the ground level station, the emissions are efficiently and rapidly diluted and air quality limits were not exceeded at these stations. With miniaturized instruments combined with logbooks, it is possible to distinguish different airborne particle sources and estimate the exposure.},
  author       = {Dahl, Andreas},
  isbn         = {978-91-7473-067-8},
  issn         = {1650-9773},
  keyword      = {railroad,indoor air,environment,occupational health,exposure,isocyanate,airborne particles,station,traffic},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {110},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Aerosol Measurements as Applied for Exposure Characterization},
  year         = {2011},
}