Advanced

Märkesorientering - Utveckling av varumärken som strategiska resurser och skydd mot varumärkesdegeneration

Urde, Mats LU (1997) In Lunds Studies in Economics and Management
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Märkesorientering är ett nytt förhållningssätt till varumärken. Inom företag som Nestlé, Pharmacia & Upjohn Nicorette och Volvo utgör varumärkena det nav kring vilket strategierna kretsar. Varumärkesfrågor behandlas inte längre som taktiska spörsmål utan är ledningsfrågor. Målsättningen inom märkesorienterade företag är ytterst att skapa, utveckla och skydda varumärken som strategiska resurser och varaktiga konkurrensfördelar.



Är då alla varumärken värdefulla? Språket griper tag i vissa varumärken som blir allmänord: windsurfer, vespa och grammofon har förlorat sin specifika innebörd. De är blott beteckningar för vissa produkttyper. Rollerblade, Bankomat och Keso kan gå... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Märkesorientering är ett nytt förhållningssätt till varumärken. Inom företag som Nestlé, Pharmacia & Upjohn Nicorette och Volvo utgör varumärkena det nav kring vilket strategierna kretsar. Varumärkesfrågor behandlas inte längre som taktiska spörsmål utan är ledningsfrågor. Målsättningen inom märkesorienterade företag är ytterst att skapa, utveckla och skydda varumärken som strategiska resurser och varaktiga konkurrensfördelar.



Är då alla varumärken värdefulla? Språket griper tag i vissa varumärken som blir allmänord: windsurfer, vespa och grammofon har förlorat sin specifika innebörd. De är blott beteckningar för vissa produkttyper. Rollerblade, Bankomat och Keso kan gå samma öde till mötes. På många håll inom näringslivet och akademien uppfattas denna typ av förändring som det yttersta tecknet på framgång för ett varumärke. Men då ett varumärke används som allmänord blir varumärkesdegeneration ett strategiskt problem. Inom företagen skapar man denna typ av svårigheter genom förhållningssättet att "vilja äga kategorin" med sina vaurmärken.



För att leda ett märkesorienterat företag och utveckla och skydda varumärken som resurser fordras märkeskompetens. Att lära sig se immateriella värden och symboler som resurser är det nödvändiga steget i märkesorienteringen. Vi måste acceptera tanken att ett företags främsta tillgångar kan bestå av något annat än järn, tegelsten och murbruk. (Less)
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine how an organisation’s approach to brands can, in the building up of a brand competence, prevent trademark degeneration and develop and protect brands as strategic resources. A line of argument is put forward for adopting a new corporate approach (mind-set) to brands. The starting-point is the concept of trademark degeneration (genericness), which is both the key and the gate to a range of fundamental questions related to brands.



Trademark degeneration means that a brand loses its distinctiveness, becoming instead a general term forming part of the language. Something happens in the process where values and meanings are created. Words such as dynamite, windsurfer, vespa, insulin and... (More)
The aim of this study was to examine how an organisation’s approach to brands can, in the building up of a brand competence, prevent trademark degeneration and develop and protect brands as strategic resources. A line of argument is put forward for adopting a new corporate approach (mind-set) to brands. The starting-point is the concept of trademark degeneration (genericness), which is both the key and the gate to a range of fundamental questions related to brands.



Trademark degeneration means that a brand loses its distinctiveness, becoming instead a general term forming part of the language. Something happens in the process where values and meanings are created. Words such as dynamite, windsurfer, vespa, insulin and gramophone are examples of successful brands which have eventually degenerated (varies between countries). When a brand degenerates, it ceases to be the exclusive legal property of a certain company. Within the marketing and strategy theory, views are diverging and sometimes even conflicting as to whether the phenomenon of degeneration is a sign of success or a problem. I argue that it is a strategic problem. Ultimately it is a question of what the company wants to achieve by means of their brands, i.e. their aims and objectives. The mind-set prevailing within an organisation with regard to brands influences the preconditions for developing sustainable strategic resources in the form of brands.



The case studies deal with Tetra Pak (Tetra Brik), Nestlé (Nescafé), DuPont (Teflon) and Pharmacia & Upjohn (Nicorette). The investigation of these companies’ brand processes, brand strategies and trademark protection reveals that there is, or at least has been, "an intent to own the category". This mind-set within the organisations is an expression of their attempts to dominate their respective product categories by means of brands which are perceived in generic terms. This type of "categorising brands" has a twofold function; as brands and as generic terms. "Categorising brands" run the risk of becoming generic, and various strategies to prevent degeneration are identified based on the case studies. The most effective strategy is to develop a core value-based brand identity, giving the brands an emotional value as well as a symbolic meaning. This requires both brand competence and a brand oriented mind-set.



Brand competence is defined as the ability to create, develop and protect brands as strategic resources. Brand orientation is a mind-set that focuses the processes of the organisation on brands. The key brands of the company become a strategic platform.



A conceptual framework for the brand oriented company is introduced, bringing together, among other things, the concepts of brand equity and brand identity. The model reflects the semiotic process on which brand development is built. The integration of different legal, semantic and semiotic foundations creates bridges between marketing and resource based strategy theory. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Prof. Lindqvist, Lars-Johan, the Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Wasa, Finland
organization
alternative title
Brand Orientation - Development of brands as strategic resources and protection against trademark degneration
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
brand competence, resource-based strategy, trademark protection, genericness, trademark degeneration, brand identity, Brand strategy, brand orientation, management, Företagsledning, Management of enterprises
in
Lunds Studies in Economics and Management
pages
452 pages
publisher
Mats Urde, Möllegatan 7, 263 32 Höganäs, Sweden (Fax: +46-42 34 34 13),
defense location
Carolinasalen, LUND
defense date
1997-10-03 11:00
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN: LUSADG/SAEK--97/1034--SE
ISSN
0284-5075
ISBN
91-7966-439-3
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
5a75ed4f-eb94-4f0e-a719-48c74e2c5b5a (old id 18114)
date added to LUP
2007-05-24 10:59:18
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:52
@phdthesis{5a75ed4f-eb94-4f0e-a719-48c74e2c5b5a,
  abstract     = {The aim of this study was to examine how an organisation’s approach to brands can, in the building up of a brand competence, prevent trademark degeneration and develop and protect brands as strategic resources. A line of argument is put forward for adopting a new corporate approach (mind-set) to brands. The starting-point is the concept of trademark degeneration (genericness), which is both the key and the gate to a range of fundamental questions related to brands.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Trademark degeneration means that a brand loses its distinctiveness, becoming instead a general term forming part of the language. Something happens in the process where values and meanings are created. Words such as dynamite, windsurfer, vespa, insulin and gramophone are examples of successful brands which have eventually degenerated (varies between countries). When a brand degenerates, it ceases to be the exclusive legal property of a certain company. Within the marketing and strategy theory, views are diverging and sometimes even conflicting as to whether the phenomenon of degeneration is a sign of success or a problem. I argue that it is a strategic problem. Ultimately it is a question of what the company wants to achieve by means of their brands, i.e. their aims and objectives. The mind-set prevailing within an organisation with regard to brands influences the preconditions for developing sustainable strategic resources in the form of brands.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The case studies deal with Tetra Pak (Tetra Brik), Nestlé (Nescafé), DuPont (Teflon) and Pharmacia &amp; Upjohn (Nicorette). The investigation of these companies’ brand processes, brand strategies and trademark protection reveals that there is, or at least has been, "an intent to own the category". This mind-set within the organisations is an expression of their attempts to dominate their respective product categories by means of brands which are perceived in generic terms. This type of "categorising brands" has a twofold function; as brands and as generic terms. "Categorising brands" run the risk of becoming generic, and various strategies to prevent degeneration are identified based on the case studies. The most effective strategy is to develop a core value-based brand identity, giving the brands an emotional value as well as a symbolic meaning. This requires both brand competence and a brand oriented mind-set.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Brand competence is defined as the ability to create, develop and protect brands as strategic resources. Brand orientation is a mind-set that focuses the processes of the organisation on brands. The key brands of the company become a strategic platform.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
A conceptual framework for the brand oriented company is introduced, bringing together, among other things, the concepts of brand equity and brand identity. The model reflects the semiotic process on which brand development is built. The integration of different legal, semantic and semiotic foundations creates bridges between marketing and resource based strategy theory.},
  author       = {Urde, Mats},
  isbn         = {91-7966-439-3},
  issn         = {0284-5075},
  keyword      = {brand competence,resource-based strategy,trademark protection,genericness,trademark degeneration,brand identity,Brand strategy,brand orientation,management,Företagsledning,Management of enterprises},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {452},
  publisher    = {Mats Urde, Möllegatan 7, 263 32 Höganäs, Sweden (Fax: +46-42 34 34 13),},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lunds Studies in Economics and Management},
  title        = {Märkesorientering - Utveckling av varumärken som strategiska resurser och skydd mot varumärkesdegeneration},
  year         = {1997},
}