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Att plantera ett barn : internationella adoptioner och assisterad befruktning i svensk reproduktionspolitik

Jonsson Malm, Carolina LU (2011) In Studia Historica Lundensia 17.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Vad är en familj, vilka kan bilda en familj och vem bestämmer det? Hur ser föreställningarna kring den ideala familjen ut? Och varför anses det viktigt att ha kännedom om sitt ursprung och att tillhöra en familj, en släkt eller en nation? I denna avhandling undersöks den svenska familjepolitiken kring internationella adoptioner och assisterad befruktning. Undersökningen bygger på statliga utredningar som utkom mellan åren 1953 och 2007, vilka återspeglar den förändrade synen på vad som är normalt, naturligt, önskvärt och moraliskt riktigt när det gäller barnalstrande och familjebildning. Utredningarna har gått från att betrakta utlandsadoptionerna som en god handling och en form av u-landshjälp... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Vad är en familj, vilka kan bilda en familj och vem bestämmer det? Hur ser föreställningarna kring den ideala familjen ut? Och varför anses det viktigt att ha kännedom om sitt ursprung och att tillhöra en familj, en släkt eller en nation? I denna avhandling undersöks den svenska familjepolitiken kring internationella adoptioner och assisterad befruktning. Undersökningen bygger på statliga utredningar som utkom mellan åren 1953 och 2007, vilka återspeglar den förändrade synen på vad som är normalt, naturligt, önskvärt och moraliskt riktigt när det gäller barnalstrande och familjebildning. Utredningarna har gått från att betrakta utlandsadoptionerna som en god handling och en form av u-landshjälp till att oroa sig för kidnappningar, barnhandel och exploatering av tredje världen. Samtidigt talas det allt mer om adoptivbarnens psykiska ohälsa och att de måste söka sina rötter. Tidigare var det viktigt att barnen snabbt försvenskades och assimilerades i det svenska samhället, men i dagens mångkulturella samhälle ska barnen snarare acceptera att de är annorlunda och bejaka sitt etniska ursprung. Den internationella adoptionsverksamheten har allt mer kommit att kritiseras samtidigt som antalet adoptioner har minskat. I motsats till detta har inställningen till reproduktionsteknologi blivit allt mer positiv och antalet behandlingar ökat kraftigt. Den tidigare skepsisen och teknikrädslan har tonats ned och tekniken har möjliggjort nya sätt att tänka kring familj och normbrytande familjepraktiker. Detta har bland annat medfört att homosexuella par har fått tillgång till assisterad befruktning och att sambandet mellan sexualitet och reproduktion har luckrats upp. Viktiga ledord för verksamheten har varit jämställdhet och likabehandling. Tekniken har också medfört ett ökat intresse för genetiska förklaringar och biologiskt släktskap. Den svenska familjepolitiken har därför blivit allt mer inriktad på att säkerställa barnets rätt till sitt ursprung. Detta har fått den kanske något paradoxala konsekvensen att man både eftersträvar att bedriva en modern familjepolitik samtidigt som man försöker bevara några av den traditionella kärnfamiljens grundbultar. (Less)
Abstract
The purpose of this thesis is to study the norms and values surrounding the family and the nation-state in Swedish family policy as they appear in Official Government Reports (SOU) on international adoption and assisted reproductive technology (ART) between 1953 and 2007. I argue that the committees’ reports can be viewed as normative statements constituting a hegemonic state discourse. The methodological approach is based on the ideas of Michel Foucault, especially the concepts relating to governmentality, such as power, knowledge, discipline and normalization, and the theoretical framework is inspired by feminist, postcolonial, and intersectionality critique of the nuclear family, heteronormativity, nationalism, and citizenship. In my... (More)
The purpose of this thesis is to study the norms and values surrounding the family and the nation-state in Swedish family policy as they appear in Official Government Reports (SOU) on international adoption and assisted reproductive technology (ART) between 1953 and 2007. I argue that the committees’ reports can be viewed as normative statements constituting a hegemonic state discourse. The methodological approach is based on the ideas of Michel Foucault, especially the concepts relating to governmentality, such as power, knowledge, discipline and normalization, and the theoretical framework is inspired by feminist, postcolonial, and intersectionality critique of the nuclear family, heteronormativity, nationalism, and citizenship. In my analysis, focus is on similarity and difference, continuity and change, in the governmental committees’ notions of what is natural, normal, and morally right when it comes to reproduction and family relations. International adoptions have been regarded as humanitarian aid for third world countries, but they have also been associated with corruption, kidnapping, baby-selling, and the exploitation of poor countries. The committees’ have worried about the adopted children’s ability to adapt, their psychological health, and the question of origin. The right to know one’s origin is also considered to be of great importance for children conceived after ART. Reproductive technology was met in the beginning with suspicion and distrust, however, the techniques have been naturalized, and there has been a gradual liberalization of ART legislation in Sweden, which has opened up opportunities for alternative families. A central conclusion of this thesis is that the Swedish reproduction policies in late modernity are very complex, partly full of contradictions and ever changing. What is constant is the will to govern. Governing is achieved through positive governing such as information, education, treatment, benefits, and financial support, or through negative governing such as exclusions, prohibitions, penalties, and correctional measures. The reports are characterized by an interdependence between power and knowledge. Scientific knowledge, especially medical, psychological, and social scientific knowledge, is important for the committees’ arguments, but at the same time the scientists too are subject to government regulation, as some scientific disciplines and research fields are privileged over others. Processes of normalization and disciplination seem to be fundamental for surveillance of the individuals concerned and the society at large. I suggest that the committees’ main goal is to create responsible, society-changing, and self-governing citizens who live up to the norm. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • fil dr Bergman, Helena, Stockholms universitet
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
family, family policy, international adoptions, assisted reproductive technology, SOU, discourse analysis, governmentality, heteronormativity, the child’s best interest, late modernity, Sweden
in
Studia Historica Lundensia
volume
17
pages
344 pages
publisher
Lund University (Media-Tryck)
defense location
D222, Lärarutbildningen, Malmö högskola, Nordenskiöldsgatan 10, Malmö
defense date
2011-04-29 13:15
ISSN
1650-755X
ISBN
978-91-7473-104-0
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
345d856a-2207-4c20-b5d5-5e3cbfcca187 (old id 1858931)
date added to LUP
2011-03-29 14:18:23
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:50
@phdthesis{345d856a-2207-4c20-b5d5-5e3cbfcca187,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this thesis is to study the norms and values surrounding the family and the nation-state in Swedish family policy as they appear in Official Government Reports (SOU) on international adoption and assisted reproductive technology (ART) between 1953 and 2007. I argue that the committees’ reports can be viewed as normative statements constituting a hegemonic state discourse. The methodological approach is based on the ideas of Michel Foucault, especially the concepts relating to governmentality, such as power, knowledge, discipline and normalization, and the theoretical framework is inspired by feminist, postcolonial, and intersectionality critique of the nuclear family, heteronormativity, nationalism, and citizenship. In my analysis, focus is on similarity and difference, continuity and change, in the governmental committees’ notions of what is natural, normal, and morally right when it comes to reproduction and family relations. International adoptions have been regarded as humanitarian aid for third world countries, but they have also been associated with corruption, kidnapping, baby-selling, and the exploitation of poor countries. The committees’ have worried about the adopted children’s ability to adapt, their psychological health, and the question of origin. The right to know one’s origin is also considered to be of great importance for children conceived after ART. Reproductive technology was met in the beginning with suspicion and distrust, however, the techniques have been naturalized, and there has been a gradual liberalization of ART legislation in Sweden, which has opened up opportunities for alternative families. A central conclusion of this thesis is that the Swedish reproduction policies in late modernity are very complex, partly full of contradictions and ever changing. What is constant is the will to govern. Governing is achieved through positive governing such as information, education, treatment, benefits, and financial support, or through negative governing such as exclusions, prohibitions, penalties, and correctional measures. The reports are characterized by an interdependence between power and knowledge. Scientific knowledge, especially medical, psychological, and social scientific knowledge, is important for the committees’ arguments, but at the same time the scientists too are subject to government regulation, as some scientific disciplines and research fields are privileged over others. Processes of normalization and disciplination seem to be fundamental for surveillance of the individuals concerned and the society at large. I suggest that the committees’ main goal is to create responsible, society-changing, and self-governing citizens who live up to the norm.},
  author       = {Jonsson Malm, Carolina},
  isbn         = {978-91-7473-104-0},
  issn         = {1650-755X},
  keyword      = {family,family policy,international adoptions,assisted reproductive technology,SOU,discourse analysis,governmentality,heteronormativity,the child’s best interest,late modernity,Sweden},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {344},
  publisher    = {Lund University (Media-Tryck)},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Studia Historica Lundensia},
  title        = {Att plantera ett barn : internationella adoptioner och assisterad befruktning i svensk reproduktionspolitik},
  volume       = {17},
  year         = {2011},
}