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Människor i utmark

Svensson, Eva LU (1998) In Lund Studies in Medieval Archaeology 21.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Målsättningen med föreliggande studie är att belysa det komplexa och varierade bruket av skogliga utmarker under järnålder, medeltid och tidig modern tid. Fysiska lämningar från landskapet Värmland i västra Sverige undersöks, med särskilt fokus på lokalsamhällena Dalby och Gunnarskog. De fysiska lämningarna i fokus för denna studie är främst fångstgropar för älg, lågtekniska järnframställningsplatser, fäbodar (sätrar), lokaler med utmarksslåtter och utmarksodling, tjärframställningsplatser och täljstensbrott. Resultaten från två undersökta bebyggelselämningar med anknytning till utmarksbruk presenteras också. Ett tvärvetenskapligt arbetssätt har tillämpats där detta har varit möjligt. Utmarksbruk... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Målsättningen med föreliggande studie är att belysa det komplexa och varierade bruket av skogliga utmarker under järnålder, medeltid och tidig modern tid. Fysiska lämningar från landskapet Värmland i västra Sverige undersöks, med särskilt fokus på lokalsamhällena Dalby och Gunnarskog. De fysiska lämningarna i fokus för denna studie är främst fångstgropar för älg, lågtekniska järnframställningsplatser, fäbodar (sätrar), lokaler med utmarksslåtter och utmarksodling, tjärframställningsplatser och täljstensbrott. Resultaten från två undersökta bebyggelselämningar med anknytning till utmarksbruk presenteras också. Ett tvärvetenskapligt arbetssätt har tillämpats där detta har varit möjligt. Utmarksbruk fungerade inom ramen för det s k åker- och ängsbruket, även om vissa utmarksaktiviteter bedrevs redan före introduktionen av detta system under mellersta järnålder i skogsområdena i mellersta Sverige, och vissa aktiviter bedrevs även efter åker- och ängsbrukssystemets upphörande i samband med den förindustriella eran. Utmarksbruk konstituerades i en dialog mellan rådande naturförutsättningar, äldre landskapsutnyttjande, markanvändningen inom åker- och ängsbrukssystemet, den sociala strukturen och de mänskliga strategierna. Människorna bakom utmarksbruket var skogsbönder, vilka till följd av utmarksbrukets förmåga att generera produkter för avsalu på en extern marknad och förmåga att fungera som riskspridare, framstår som en välbärad grupp. Skogsböndernas strategier i relation till sina omgivande sociala förutsättningar och rådande naturförutsättningar studeras främst genom två arenor för social praktik och dagligt liv; hushållet och arbetsorganisationen samt lokalsamhället. Skogsbönderna i lokalsamhällena Gunnarskog och Dalby utvecklade olika strategier i sitt utmarksbruk. I Gunnarskog förefaller skogsbönderna ha idkat en form av arbetsdelning rörande olika utmarksresurser mellan hushåll och byar. I Dalby förefaller nästan alla hushåll ha varit engagerade i alla former av utmarksbruk, och det förefaller t o m ha funnits en konkurrens mellan hushållen vad gällde produktion av varor på en extern marknad under vikingatid och tidig medeltid. Då denna externa marknad vek under vikingatid och tidig medeltid föreföll Dalby-bönderna ha strävat efter att etablera en samarbetsorganisation inom lokalsamhället. Under tidig modern tid var skogsbönderna i såväl Dalby som Gunnarskog inblandade i oxdrifter till de närliggande bergslagsområdena. (Less)
Abstract
The aim of this study is to illuminate the complex and varied uses of the forested outlands, from the Iron Age, through the Middle Ages, to Early Modern times. Material evidence from the landscape of Värmland, in Western Sweden, will be examined, focusing on the local societies of Dalby and Gunnarskog. Evidence for the reconstruction of outland activities comes from a range of sites, including pitfalls for elk, bloomery furnaces, shielings, localities with outland haymaking and agriculture, tar production sites, and soapstone quarries. Results from the excavation of two settlement sites connected with outland use are also presented. A multi-disciplinary approach has been adopted where the evidence is available. Outland use functioned... (More)
The aim of this study is to illuminate the complex and varied uses of the forested outlands, from the Iron Age, through the Middle Ages, to Early Modern times. Material evidence from the landscape of Värmland, in Western Sweden, will be examined, focusing on the local societies of Dalby and Gunnarskog. Evidence for the reconstruction of outland activities comes from a range of sites, including pitfalls for elk, bloomery furnaces, shielings, localities with outland haymaking and agriculture, tar production sites, and soapstone quarries. Results from the excavation of two settlement sites connected with outland use are also presented. A multi-disciplinary approach has been adopted where the evidence is available. Outland use functioned within the "permanent field and meadow system", although some outland activites predate the introduction of this system, during the Middle Iron Age in the forests of central Sweden, and some continued to function after its breakdown in the pre-industrial period. Outland use developed from a dialogue between the natural environment, pre-existing practices within the outland, patterns of land division introduced by the "permanent field and meadow system", the structure of society and general human strategies. The people involved in outland use were the forest farmers, a wealthy element of society, due to the marketable value of the products of outland use, and the risk-management capacity of outland use. The strategies adopted by the forest farmers to the surrounding environment, both natural and social, is studied through the two main arenas for social practices and daily actions; the household and associated work co-operatives, and the local society. The forest farmers of the two local societies of Dalby and Gunnarskog adopted quite different strategies toward outland use. In Gunnarskog the forest farmers appear to have practised a form of labour division, where different households speciliased in different outland activities. In Dalby the various households were engaged in most forms of outland production and appear to have been competing against one another to produce goods for an external market during the Viking Age and the Early Medieval period. When this external market collapsed during the High Middle Ages the forest farmers of Dalby appear to have responded by establishing systems for co-operation. By the Early Modern period the forest farmers of both Gunnarskog and Dalby were engaged in cattle breeding for the lucrative market of the Swedish mining districts. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Martens, Irmelin, Oslo
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
local societies, social practice, human strategies, pitfalls for elk, bloomery furnaces, shielings, outland agriculture, outland haymaking, rural settlement, soapstone quarries, forest farmers, tar production, households, landscape archaeology, Outand use, Archaeology, Arkeologi
in
Lund Studies in Medieval Archaeology
volume
21
pages
221 pages
publisher
Almqvist & Wiksell International
defense location
Samarkand, Lund
defense date
1998-09-29 10:15
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN: LUHFDA/HFAR-98/1034-SE+221
ISSN
0283-6874
ISBN
91-2201808-5
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
529833d6-f2ec-4c29-a351-91ae02845690 (old id 18641)
date added to LUP
2007-05-24 13:06:07
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:56
@phdthesis{529833d6-f2ec-4c29-a351-91ae02845690,
  abstract     = {The aim of this study is to illuminate the complex and varied uses of the forested outlands, from the Iron Age, through the Middle Ages, to Early Modern times. Material evidence from the landscape of Värmland, in Western Sweden, will be examined, focusing on the local societies of Dalby and Gunnarskog. Evidence for the reconstruction of outland activities comes from a range of sites, including pitfalls for elk, bloomery furnaces, shielings, localities with outland haymaking and agriculture, tar production sites, and soapstone quarries. Results from the excavation of two settlement sites connected with outland use are also presented. A multi-disciplinary approach has been adopted where the evidence is available. Outland use functioned within the "permanent field and meadow system", although some outland activites predate the introduction of this system, during the Middle Iron Age in the forests of central Sweden, and some continued to function after its breakdown in the pre-industrial period. Outland use developed from a dialogue between the natural environment, pre-existing practices within the outland, patterns of land division introduced by the "permanent field and meadow system", the structure of society and general human strategies. The people involved in outland use were the forest farmers, a wealthy element of society, due to the marketable value of the products of outland use, and the risk-management capacity of outland use. The strategies adopted by the forest farmers to the surrounding environment, both natural and social, is studied through the two main arenas for social practices and daily actions; the household and associated work co-operatives, and the local society. The forest farmers of the two local societies of Dalby and Gunnarskog adopted quite different strategies toward outland use. In Gunnarskog the forest farmers appear to have practised a form of labour division, where different households speciliased in different outland activities. In Dalby the various households were engaged in most forms of outland production and appear to have been competing against one another to produce goods for an external market during the Viking Age and the Early Medieval period. When this external market collapsed during the High Middle Ages the forest farmers of Dalby appear to have responded by establishing systems for co-operation. By the Early Modern period the forest farmers of both Gunnarskog and Dalby were engaged in cattle breeding for the lucrative market of the Swedish mining districts.},
  author       = {Svensson, Eva},
  isbn         = {91-2201808-5},
  issn         = {0283-6874},
  keyword      = {local societies,social practice,human strategies,pitfalls for elk,bloomery furnaces,shielings,outland agriculture,outland haymaking,rural settlement,soapstone quarries,forest farmers,tar production,households,landscape archaeology,Outand use,Archaeology,Arkeologi},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {221},
  publisher    = {Almqvist & Wiksell International},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund Studies in Medieval Archaeology},
  title        = {Människor i utmark},
  volume       = {21},
  year         = {1998},
}