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Coupled biogeochemical cycles: eutrophication and hypoxia in temperate estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems

Howarth, Robert; Chan, Francis; Conley, Daniel LU ; Garnier, Josette; Doney, Scott C.; Marino, Roxanne and Billen, Gilles (2011) In Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9(1). p.18-26
Abstract
Nutrient fluxes to coastal areas have risen in recent decades, leading to widespread hypoxia and other ecological damage, particularly from nitrogen (N). Several factors make N more limiting in estuaries and coastal waters than in lakes: desorption (release) of phosphorus (P) bound to clay as salinity increases, lack of planktonic N fixation in most coastal ecosystems, and flux of relatively P-rich, N-poor waters from coastal oceans into estuaries. During eutrophication, biogeochemical feedbacks further increase the supply of N and P, but decrease availability of silica - conditions that can favor the formation and persistence of harmful algal blooms. Given sufficient N inputs, estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems can be driven to P... (More)
Nutrient fluxes to coastal areas have risen in recent decades, leading to widespread hypoxia and other ecological damage, particularly from nitrogen (N). Several factors make N more limiting in estuaries and coastal waters than in lakes: desorption (release) of phosphorus (P) bound to clay as salinity increases, lack of planktonic N fixation in most coastal ecosystems, and flux of relatively P-rich, N-poor waters from coastal oceans into estuaries. During eutrophication, biogeochemical feedbacks further increase the supply of N and P, but decrease availability of silica - conditions that can favor the formation and persistence of harmful algal blooms. Given sufficient N inputs, estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems can be driven to P limitation. This switch contributes to greater far-field N pollution; that is, the N moves further and contributes to eutrophication at greater distances. The physical oceanography (extent of stratification, residence time, and so forth) of coastal systems determines their sensitivity to hypoxia, and recent changes in physics have made some ecosystems more sensitive to hypoxia. Coastal hypoxia contributes to ocean acidification, which harms calcifying organisms such as mollusks and some crustaceans. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
volume
9
issue
1
pages
18 - 26
publisher
Ecological Society of America
external identifiers
  • wos:000286845400004
  • scopus:79551620897
ISSN
1540-9309
DOI
10.1890/100008
project
BECC
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
a35a0bf8-a7c2-4079-998b-87052183f5a7 (old id 1882575)
date added to LUP
2011-03-31 15:49:51
date last changed
2017-11-12 03:09:16
@article{a35a0bf8-a7c2-4079-998b-87052183f5a7,
  abstract     = {Nutrient fluxes to coastal areas have risen in recent decades, leading to widespread hypoxia and other ecological damage, particularly from nitrogen (N). Several factors make N more limiting in estuaries and coastal waters than in lakes: desorption (release) of phosphorus (P) bound to clay as salinity increases, lack of planktonic N fixation in most coastal ecosystems, and flux of relatively P-rich, N-poor waters from coastal oceans into estuaries. During eutrophication, biogeochemical feedbacks further increase the supply of N and P, but decrease availability of silica - conditions that can favor the formation and persistence of harmful algal blooms. Given sufficient N inputs, estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems can be driven to P limitation. This switch contributes to greater far-field N pollution; that is, the N moves further and contributes to eutrophication at greater distances. The physical oceanography (extent of stratification, residence time, and so forth) of coastal systems determines their sensitivity to hypoxia, and recent changes in physics have made some ecosystems more sensitive to hypoxia. Coastal hypoxia contributes to ocean acidification, which harms calcifying organisms such as mollusks and some crustaceans.},
  author       = {Howarth, Robert and Chan, Francis and Conley, Daniel and Garnier, Josette and Doney, Scott C. and Marino, Roxanne and Billen, Gilles},
  issn         = {1540-9309},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {18--26},
  publisher    = {Ecological Society of America},
  series       = {Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment},
  title        = {Coupled biogeochemical cycles: eutrophication and hypoxia in temperate estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/100008},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2011},
}