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The Dead Sea Future Elevation

Bashitialshaaer, Raed LU ; Persson, Kenneth M LU and Aljaradin, Mohammad LU (2011) In International Journal of Sustainable Water and Environmental Systems - IASKS 2(2). p.67-76
Abstract
In this paper water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled. Precipitation, evaporation, river discharges,

ground water flows, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were included in the

models. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled using a single-layer (well-mixed) a two-layer (stratified) system.

Using the single-layer approach the water level was predicted to change from 411 m below mean sea level (bmsl) (in

1997) to 391 m and 479 m bmsl (in 2097) based on water mass balances including and excluding brine discharge,

respectively, and to reach 402 m and 444 m for the two cases based on a salt mass balance. In the two-layer approach... (More)
In this paper water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled. Precipitation, evaporation, river discharges,

ground water flows, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were included in the

models. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled using a single-layer (well-mixed) a two-layer (stratified) system.

Using the single-layer approach the water level was predicted to change from 411 m below mean sea level (bmsl) (in

1997) to 391 m and 479 m bmsl (in 2097) based on water mass balances including and excluding brine discharge,

respectively, and to reach 402 m and 444 m for the two cases based on a salt mass balance. In the two-layer approach the

water level after 100 years was predicted to change from 411 m bmsl (1997) to 397 m and 488 m for a water mass

balance including and excluding brine discharge, respectively, and to reach 387 m and 425 m for the two cases using a

salt mass balance. The water mixing time using the single-layer description increased from 58 to 116 years when

excluding brine discharge. Using the two-layer approach the exchange or mixing time increased in both layers, when

adding brine discharge to the system, from 1.2 to 1.7 years and 11 to 15.3 years in the upper and lower layers,

respectively. Good agreement was found between the models and historical data. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to specialist publication or newspaper
publication status
published
subject
keywords
mixing time, Water-Salt balance, Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal (RSDSC), Single-Layer and Two-Layer system
in
International Journal of Sustainable Water and Environmental Systems - IASKS
volume
2
issue
2
pages
10 pages
publisher
International Association for Sharing Knowledge and Sustainability
ISSN
1923-7545
DOI
10.5383/swes.02.02.001
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
40016e8d-409c-47e8-9c93-2b724592c0b6 (old id 1884794)
alternative location
http://iasks.org/sites/default/files/swes20110202067076.pdf
date added to LUP
2011-04-01 11:51:40
date last changed
2016-11-09 14:05:38
@misc{40016e8d-409c-47e8-9c93-2b724592c0b6,
  abstract     = {In this paper water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled. Precipitation, evaporation, river discharges,<br/><br>
ground water flows, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were included in the<br/><br>
models. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled using a single-layer (well-mixed) a two-layer (stratified) system.<br/><br>
Using the single-layer approach the water level was predicted to change from 411 m below mean sea level (bmsl) (in<br/><br>
1997) to 391 m and 479 m bmsl (in 2097) based on water mass balances including and excluding brine discharge,<br/><br>
respectively, and to reach 402 m and 444 m for the two cases based on a salt mass balance. In the two-layer approach the<br/><br>
water level after 100 years was predicted to change from 411 m bmsl (1997) to 397 m and 488 m for a water mass<br/><br>
balance including and excluding brine discharge, respectively, and to reach 387 m and 425 m for the two cases using a<br/><br>
salt mass balance. The water mixing time using the single-layer description increased from 58 to 116 years when<br/><br>
excluding brine discharge. Using the two-layer approach the exchange or mixing time increased in both layers, when<br/><br>
adding brine discharge to the system, from 1.2 to 1.7 years and 11 to 15.3 years in the upper and lower layers,<br/><br>
respectively. Good agreement was found between the models and historical data.},
  author       = {Bashitialshaaer, Raed and Persson, Kenneth M and Aljaradin, Mohammad},
  issn         = {1923-7545},
  keyword      = {mixing time,Water-Salt balance,Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal (RSDSC),Single-Layer and Two-Layer system},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {67--76},
  publisher    = {International Association for Sharing Knowledge and Sustainability},
  series       = {International Journal of Sustainable Water and Environmental Systems - IASKS},
  title        = {The Dead Sea Future Elevation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5383/swes.02.02.001},
  volume       = {2},
  year         = {2011},
}