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Great Britain, the United States, and the Security of the Middle East: The Formation of the Baghdad Pact

Persson, Magnus P S LU (1998) In Lund Studies in International History
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Anglo-amerikanska relationer efter andra världskriget bestod både av samarbete och konflikt. Ett exempel på det första var Pentagondiskussionerna 1947 då ett amerikanskt uttalande betonade det generella målet att upprätthålla säkerheten i Mellanöstern genom att stödja de brittiska politiska, ekonomiska och strategiska positionerna i området. Ett exempel på det senare var Suezkrisen 1956 då USA fullständigt undandrog sitt stöd för den brittiska politiken.



Bildandet av Baghdadpakten var ett resultat av brittisk och amerikansk rädsla för sovjetisk expansion i Mellanöstern. Enligt den anglo-amerikanska synen var Mellanöstern ett väsentligt område p.g.a. sina omfattande oljeresurser... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Anglo-amerikanska relationer efter andra världskriget bestod både av samarbete och konflikt. Ett exempel på det första var Pentagondiskussionerna 1947 då ett amerikanskt uttalande betonade det generella målet att upprätthålla säkerheten i Mellanöstern genom att stödja de brittiska politiska, ekonomiska och strategiska positionerna i området. Ett exempel på det senare var Suezkrisen 1956 då USA fullständigt undandrog sitt stöd för den brittiska politiken.



Bildandet av Baghdadpakten var ett resultat av brittisk och amerikansk rädsla för sovjetisk expansion i Mellanöstern. Enligt den anglo-amerikanska synen var Mellanöstern ett väsentligt område p.g.a. sina omfattande oljeresurser och strategiska geografiska läge med kommunikationslänkar för sjöfart och flyg. Dessutom gjorde ett flertal militärbaser området viktigt som en utgångspunkt för möjliga militära attacker mot Sovjetunionen.



USA tog initiativet till den s.k. Nordradspolitiken ("Northern Tier policy"), att skapa ett försvarsbarriär längs Sovjets sydgräns, och detta resulterade senare i Baghdadpakten. Denna studie tar upp anglo-amerikanska relationer i relation till Nordradspolitiken och Baghdadpaktens bildningsfas 1953-1955. Pakten blev till en multilateral regional säkerhetsorganisation som kom att inkludera som medlemmar Turkiet, Irak, Iran, Pakistan och Storbritannien och, fastän inte formellt medlem, med USA som mycket tätt knuten till Pakten.



Bildandet av Baghdadpakten inkluderade både fall av anglo-amerikansk oenighet, till exempel gällande deras respektive politiska positioner i Irak och p.g.a. av delvis annorlunda politiska mål i Mellanöstern. Trots dessa fall av rivalitet gjorde intresset av invallning av Sovjetunionen att samarbete kom att karakterisera de anglo-amerikanska relationerna. (Less)
Abstract
Anglo-American post-Second World War relations in the Middle East included cases of close cooperation and conflict. An example of the former was the Pentagon Talks in 1947 when an American statement pointed out the general objective of maintaining the security of the Middle East by retaining the British political, economic, and strategic position in areas supported by the United States. An example of conflict was the 1956 Suez Crisis when the United States extracted itself completely from the British policy.



The formation of the Baghdad Pact resulted primarily from postwar British and American fears of Soviet expansion into the Middle East. In the Anglo-American conception, the Middle East was a crucial area because of... (More)
Anglo-American post-Second World War relations in the Middle East included cases of close cooperation and conflict. An example of the former was the Pentagon Talks in 1947 when an American statement pointed out the general objective of maintaining the security of the Middle East by retaining the British political, economic, and strategic position in areas supported by the United States. An example of conflict was the 1956 Suez Crisis when the United States extracted itself completely from the British policy.



The formation of the Baghdad Pact resulted primarily from postwar British and American fears of Soviet expansion into the Middle East. In the Anglo-American conception, the Middle East was a crucial area because of its extensive oil deposits and its strategic geographic location with communication links for the navy and aviation lines. Further, several military bases made the area important as a staging post for military attacks against the Soviet Union.



The United States took the initiative to the Northern Tier policy, to create a defense barrier along the southern border of the Soviet Union, and this policy later resulted in the Baghdad Pact. This study addresses Anglo-American relations in relation to the Northern Tier policy and the formulation phase of the Baghdad Pact from 1953 to 1955. The Pact became a multilateral regional security organization that eventually included as members Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Britain and, although not formally as a member, but closely attached to it, the United States.



The formation of the Baghdad Pact included both cases of Anglo-American disagreement and dispute, for instance concerning their respective positions in Iraq and because of conflicting policy objectives toward the Middle East. Despite these cases of rivalry, the interests in containment of the Soviet Union made collaboration the typical characteristic of the Anglo-American relationship. (Less)
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author
opponent
  • Doc. Persson, Sune
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Iraq, Turkey, patron-client relationship, alliance formation, Anglo-American relations, special relationship, Northern Tier, Baghdad Pact, Great Britain, United States, Iran, Pakistan, Contemporary history (since 1914), Nutidshistoria (från 1914)
in
Lund Studies in International History
pages
368 pages
publisher
Lund University Press
defense location
Department of History
defense date
1998-06-05 10:15
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN: LUHFDA/HFHI-1998/1083-SE+368
ISSN
0076-1494
ISBN
91-7966-523-3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
e29d7b14-1a61-4011-979b-9c3403f12c9c (old id 18881)
date added to LUP
2007-05-24 14:38:00
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:54
@phdthesis{e29d7b14-1a61-4011-979b-9c3403f12c9c,
  abstract     = {Anglo-American post-Second World War relations in the Middle East included cases of close cooperation and conflict. An example of the former was the Pentagon Talks in 1947 when an American statement pointed out the general objective of maintaining the security of the Middle East by retaining the British political, economic, and strategic position in areas supported by the United States. An example of conflict was the 1956 Suez Crisis when the United States extracted itself completely from the British policy.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The formation of the Baghdad Pact resulted primarily from postwar British and American fears of Soviet expansion into the Middle East. In the Anglo-American conception, the Middle East was a crucial area because of its extensive oil deposits and its strategic geographic location with communication links for the navy and aviation lines. Further, several military bases made the area important as a staging post for military attacks against the Soviet Union.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The United States took the initiative to the Northern Tier policy, to create a defense barrier along the southern border of the Soviet Union, and this policy later resulted in the Baghdad Pact. This study addresses Anglo-American relations in relation to the Northern Tier policy and the formulation phase of the Baghdad Pact from 1953 to 1955. The Pact became a multilateral regional security organization that eventually included as members Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Britain and, although not formally as a member, but closely attached to it, the United States.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The formation of the Baghdad Pact included both cases of Anglo-American disagreement and dispute, for instance concerning their respective positions in Iraq and because of conflicting policy objectives toward the Middle East. Despite these cases of rivalry, the interests in containment of the Soviet Union made collaboration the typical characteristic of the Anglo-American relationship.},
  author       = {Persson, Magnus P S},
  isbn         = {91-7966-523-3},
  issn         = {0076-1494},
  keyword      = {Iraq,Turkey,patron-client relationship,alliance formation,Anglo-American relations,special relationship,Northern Tier,Baghdad Pact,Great Britain,United States,Iran,Pakistan,Contemporary history (since 1914),Nutidshistoria (från 1914)},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {368},
  publisher    = {Lund University Press},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund Studies in International History},
  title        = {Great Britain, the United States, and the Security of the Middle East: The Formation of the Baghdad Pact},
  year         = {1998},
}