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High-level energy estimation in the sub-VT domain: simulation and measurement of a cardiac event detector

Akgun, OmerCan LU ; Rodrigues, Joachim LU ; Leblebici, Yusuf and Öwall, Viktor LU (2012) In IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems 6(1). p.15-27
Abstract
This paper presents a flow that is suitable to estimate energy dissipation of digital standard-cell based designs which are determined to be operated in the sub-threshold regime. The flow is applicable on gate-level netlists, where back-annotated toggle information is used to find the minimum energy operation point, corresponding maximum clock frequency, as well as the dissipated energy per clock cycle. The application of the model

is demonstrated by exploring the energy efficiency of pipelining, retiming and register balancing. Simulation results, which are obtained during a fraction of SPICE simulation time, are validated by measurements on a wavelet based cardiac event detector that was fabricated in 65 nm low-leakage... (More)
This paper presents a flow that is suitable to estimate energy dissipation of digital standard-cell based designs which are determined to be operated in the sub-threshold regime. The flow is applicable on gate-level netlists, where back-annotated toggle information is used to find the minimum energy operation point, corresponding maximum clock frequency, as well as the dissipated energy per clock cycle. The application of the model

is demonstrated by exploring the energy efficiency of pipelining, retiming and register balancing. Simulation results, which are obtained during a fraction of SPICE simulation time, are validated by measurements on a wavelet based cardiac event detector that was fabricated in 65 nm low-leakage high-threshold technology. The mean of the absolute modeling error is calculated as 5.2 %, with a standard deviation of 6.6% over the measurement points. The cardiac event detector dissipates 0.88 pJ/sample at a supply voltage of 320mV. (Less)
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author
organization
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type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
High-level energy estimation, sub-threshold, QRS detection, R-wave, cardiac pacemaker, energy model.
in
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
volume
6
issue
1
pages
15 - 27
publisher
IEEE--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
external identifiers
  • wos:000299923900002
  • scopus:84856491561
ISSN
1932-4545
DOI
10.1109/TBCAS.2011.2157505
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
110e24bf-771a-41b9-9e2e-41adee6aa907 (old id 1897949)
date added to LUP
2011-05-12 10:40:27
date last changed
2017-08-20 03:02:24
@article{110e24bf-771a-41b9-9e2e-41adee6aa907,
  abstract     = {This paper presents a flow that is suitable to estimate energy dissipation of digital standard-cell based designs which are determined to be operated in the sub-threshold regime. The flow is applicable on gate-level netlists, where back-annotated toggle information is used to find the minimum energy operation point, corresponding maximum clock frequency, as well as the dissipated energy per clock cycle. The application of the model<br/><br>
is demonstrated by exploring the energy efficiency of pipelining, retiming and register balancing. Simulation results, which are obtained during a fraction of SPICE simulation time, are validated by measurements on a wavelet based cardiac event detector that was fabricated in 65 nm low-leakage high-threshold technology. The mean of the absolute modeling error is calculated as 5.2 %, with a standard deviation of 6.6% over the measurement points. The cardiac event detector dissipates 0.88 pJ/sample at a supply voltage of 320mV.},
  author       = {Akgun, OmerCan and Rodrigues, Joachim and Leblebici, Yusuf and Öwall, Viktor},
  issn         = {1932-4545},
  keyword      = {High-level energy estimation,sub-threshold,QRS detection,R-wave,cardiac pacemaker,energy model.},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {15--27},
  publisher    = {IEEE--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.},
  series       = {IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems},
  title        = {High-level energy estimation in the sub-VT domain: simulation and measurement of a cardiac event detector},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBCAS.2011.2157505},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2012},
}