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Livsbaner gennem et felt: en analyse af eliteidraetsudøveres sociale mobilitet og rekonversioner af kapital i det sociale rum

Munk, Martin D LU (1999) In Lund dissertations in sociology 28.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Livsbaner gennem et felt viser hvorledes eliteidrætsudøvere klarer sig i samfundet efter livet i sporten. Spørgsmålet er om erhvervelse af fysisk sportskapital i sportsfeltet, medieret gennem berømmelse, medvirker til at opnå et arbejde eller en bestemt placering i samfundet. Sportskapital bidrager måske til social mobilitet. Dette er belyst gennem konkrete undersøgelser af eliteidrætsudøveres liv under og efter forløbet. Individer agerer i overensstemmelse med de objektive muligheder, som byder sig. Udøverne finder som oftest vej til stillinger i samfundet via akademisk eller faglært uddannelse og joberfaringer. Der er forholdsvis få jobs i sporten, blandt andet fordi idrætten er organiseret... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Livsbaner gennem et felt viser hvorledes eliteidrætsudøvere klarer sig i samfundet efter livet i sporten. Spørgsmålet er om erhvervelse af fysisk sportskapital i sportsfeltet, medieret gennem berømmelse, medvirker til at opnå et arbejde eller en bestemt placering i samfundet. Sportskapital bidrager måske til social mobilitet. Dette er belyst gennem konkrete undersøgelser af eliteidrætsudøveres liv under og efter forløbet. Individer agerer i overensstemmelse med de objektive muligheder, som byder sig. Udøverne finder som oftest vej til stillinger i samfundet via akademisk eller faglært uddannelse og joberfaringer. Der er forholdsvis få jobs i sporten, blandt andet fordi idrætten er organiseret gennem private ikke-statslige institutioner. Det er hyppigst udøvere med megen anerkendt sportskapital fra det relative autonome sportsfelt, som det lykkes at blive i feltet. Betragtes alle idrætsgrene, viser det sig generelt, at knap halvdelen af de tidligere udøvere socialt set reproduceres, det vil sige, de får nogenlunde tilsvarende erhverv som deres forældre. Godt en fjerdedel 'taber' terræn i forhold til social oprindelse, og mere end en femtedel 'vinder' socialt. Gennem sociologiske analyser vises nuancerne mellem forskellige livsbaner og grupper, idet de udtrykkes i objektive relationelle oppositioner. Livet i sporten opfattes af nogle udøvere som en 'karriere' og af andre udøvere som 'ikke-karriere'. Dette bringes blandt andet frem i lyset ved hjælp af graferne i korrespondanceanalyserne (visualisering). Disse gør det muligt at foretage analyser, der er empirifølsomme, og dermed kommer man tættere på de faktiske sociale processer. Det er en udbredt myte, at sporten især er et rum for lower outcasts. Faktisk bevæger få ufaglærte og mange akademikere sig gennem sportsfeltet. Der findes en homologi mellem sportsfeltets positionsstruktur, og den tilsvarende struktur, som viser sig efter ophøret med eliteidræt i det sociale rum i Danmark. (Less)
Abstract
The thesis deals with a theoretical outline of the theory of reconversions in the light of the social space, with an analysis of top level athletes' mobility and strategies of reconversions in their trajectories through the relative autonomous field of sports. Some disciplines in this field have much autonomy, others less, and are positioned according to a state of distribution of the specific capital, accumulated in the consequence of previous struggles. Trajectories and classes are not reproduced in a mechanical way, there are specific effects in those. By the concept of strategies of reconversions it is possible to determine central societal processes according to transformations and reproductions of the social world. They are defined... (More)
The thesis deals with a theoretical outline of the theory of reconversions in the light of the social space, with an analysis of top level athletes' mobility and strategies of reconversions in their trajectories through the relative autonomous field of sports. Some disciplines in this field have much autonomy, others less, and are positioned according to a state of distribution of the specific capital, accumulated in the consequence of previous struggles. Trajectories and classes are not reproduced in a mechanical way, there are specific effects in those. By the concept of strategies of reconversions it is possible to determine central societal processes according to transformations and reproductions of the social world. They are defined as practices by which social groups endeavour to keep 'on the road' or even change position. In that sense social life is about struggles and converting capital. The thesis builds upon investigations of sports. In an enquete, 1990, I examined whether cycling could be characterized as a field, and included 220 schemes. In 1993, I studied athletes' trajectories through sports, and how these athletes left sports, including 538 athletes distributed on 25 disciplines in the main analysis. Some of those were interviewed, and material about achievements in international championships and the Danish population were applied. I compared central tables with French sociologists in 1994-1996. I have used correspondence analysis according to a French interpretation. The important thing with this type of analysis is that modalities with small frequencies do not get lost, and there is a possibility of using supplementary modalities and individuals. The main thing is to analyse objective relational oppositions. Correspondence analysis is used together with sociological analysis, which is more sensitive towards empirical material and thereby closer to actually social processes. Two aspects in the transitions between the field of sports and the social space are important: the relative short period of time in sports and the objective possibilities after the time in sports. It is clear that the small conversion-rate of capital into a permanent job in sports (after the active period) is closely related to the fact that Denmark is a society with private organized institutions of sports and clubs grounded upon voluntary work, and no state institutions. This is contrary to the United States and France. Fifteen per cent obtain a job in the field, and it primarily concerns athletes from 'upper' and 'middle' classes (academics, teachers and directors) and agents with large volume of sports capital. What seems to be important is the structural homology between the social space and the way in which athletes find their pathways from the field to other places in the social space; capital can be converted on certain conditions. The great amount of movements regarding sons and daughters of self-employed to working class conditions and to positions like teachers reflect a general tendency in society. The correspondence analysis shows two main positions over time, dealing with agents who pass through and spend some time of the trajectory in the field of sports. On one side there is a vocational pole with origin among dominated classes, and on the other side an academic pole primarily with origin among dominating classes. Furthermore the analysis point at a dichotomy between objective opportunities for a professional career in badminton, golf, tennis etc. and no possibilities in curling, orienteering, shooting etc. There is an effect of gravitation/struggle from the field of sports, with the possibility of converting sports capital, but the strategies of reconversions and mobility depend also on the structural homology between the field and the social space mediated by trajectories, and the structure of society. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Professor Roos, J.P., Helsinki University, Finland.
organization
alternative title
Trajectories through a field. An analysis of top level athletes' social mobility and reconversions of capital in the social space.
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Trajectories, field of sports, athletes, sports capital, social space, strategies of reconversions, structural homology, Sociology, social mobility, correspondence analysis., 'classes', Sociologi
in
Lund dissertations in sociology
volume
28
pages
412 pages
publisher
Department of Sociology, Lund University
defense location
Carolinasalen, Kungshuset, Lund University.
defense date
1999-03-05 10:15
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN: LUSAGD/SASO--98/1123-SE
ISSN
1102-4712
ISBN
91-89078-72-1.
language
Danish
LU publication?
yes
id
e5f17b6c-d1fa-45a0-bce3-9ee1e8518086 (old id 19095)
date added to LUP
2007-05-25 07:55:59
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:52
@phdthesis{e5f17b6c-d1fa-45a0-bce3-9ee1e8518086,
  abstract     = {The thesis deals with a theoretical outline of the theory of reconversions in the light of the social space, with an analysis of top level athletes' mobility and strategies of reconversions in their trajectories through the relative autonomous field of sports. Some disciplines in this field have much autonomy, others less, and are positioned according to a state of distribution of the specific capital, accumulated in the consequence of previous struggles. Trajectories and classes are not reproduced in a mechanical way, there are specific effects in those. By the concept of strategies of reconversions it is possible to determine central societal processes according to transformations and reproductions of the social world. They are defined as practices by which social groups endeavour to keep 'on the road' or even change position. In that sense social life is about struggles and converting capital. The thesis builds upon investigations of sports. In an enquete, 1990, I examined whether cycling could be characterized as a field, and included 220 schemes. In 1993, I studied athletes' trajectories through sports, and how these athletes left sports, including 538 athletes distributed on 25 disciplines in the main analysis. Some of those were interviewed, and material about achievements in international championships and the Danish population were applied. I compared central tables with French sociologists in 1994-1996. I have used correspondence analysis according to a French interpretation. The important thing with this type of analysis is that modalities with small frequencies do not get lost, and there is a possibility of using supplementary modalities and individuals. The main thing is to analyse objective relational oppositions. Correspondence analysis is used together with sociological analysis, which is more sensitive towards empirical material and thereby closer to actually social processes. Two aspects in the transitions between the field of sports and the social space are important: the relative short period of time in sports and the objective possibilities after the time in sports. It is clear that the small conversion-rate of capital into a permanent job in sports (after the active period) is closely related to the fact that Denmark is a society with private organized institutions of sports and clubs grounded upon voluntary work, and no state institutions. This is contrary to the United States and France. Fifteen per cent obtain a job in the field, and it primarily concerns athletes from 'upper' and 'middle' classes (academics, teachers and directors) and agents with large volume of sports capital. What seems to be important is the structural homology between the social space and the way in which athletes find their pathways from the field to other places in the social space; capital can be converted on certain conditions. The great amount of movements regarding sons and daughters of self-employed to working class conditions and to positions like teachers reflect a general tendency in society. The correspondence analysis shows two main positions over time, dealing with agents who pass through and spend some time of the trajectory in the field of sports. On one side there is a vocational pole with origin among dominated classes, and on the other side an academic pole primarily with origin among dominating classes. Furthermore the analysis point at a dichotomy between objective opportunities for a professional career in badminton, golf, tennis etc. and no possibilities in curling, orienteering, shooting etc. There is an effect of gravitation/struggle from the field of sports, with the possibility of converting sports capital, but the strategies of reconversions and mobility depend also on the structural homology between the field and the social space mediated by trajectories, and the structure of society.},
  author       = {Munk, Martin D},
  isbn         = {91-89078-72-1.},
  issn         = {1102-4712},
  keyword      = {Trajectories,field of sports,athletes,sports capital,social space,strategies of reconversions,structural homology,Sociology,social mobility,correspondence analysis.,'classes',Sociologi},
  language     = {dan},
  pages        = {412},
  publisher    = {Department of Sociology, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund dissertations in sociology},
  title        = {Livsbaner gennem et felt: en analyse af eliteidraetsudøveres sociale mobilitet og rekonversioner af kapital i det sociale rum},
  volume       = {28},
  year         = {1999},
}