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Modelling the Variability of Bending Strength in Structural Timber - Length and Load Configuration Effects

Isaksson, Tord LU (1999) In Report TVBK 1015.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Hållfastheten hos en balk av konstruktionsvirke är beroende av balkens spännvidd och typ av belastning. En längre balk har en lägre hållfasthet än en kort balk på samma sätt som en balk med konstant moment har lägre hållfasthet än en balk belastad med en punktlast. Orsaken till denna längd- och lastberoende bärförmåga är variationen i hållfasthet längs med en balk. Variationen beror på de naturliga defekter, t.ex. kvistar, som förekommer i virket. Alltså, ju längre en balk är desto större sannolikhet att man träffar på en svagare del. I avhandlingen presenteras en statistisk modell av hur hållfastheten varierar mellan balkar och inom balkar. Modellen är baserad på experimentella försök.... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Hållfastheten hos en balk av konstruktionsvirke är beroende av balkens spännvidd och typ av belastning. En längre balk har en lägre hållfasthet än en kort balk på samma sätt som en balk med konstant moment har lägre hållfasthet än en balk belastad med en punktlast. Orsaken till denna längd- och lastberoende bärförmåga är variationen i hållfasthet längs med en balk. Variationen beror på de naturliga defekter, t.ex. kvistar, som förekommer i virket. Alltså, ju längre en balk är desto större sannolikhet att man träffar på en svagare del. I avhandlingen presenteras en statistisk modell av hur hållfastheten varierar mellan balkar och inom balkar. Modellen är baserad på experimentella försök. Konstruktionsvirkets längd- och lastberoende har sedan studerats med hjälp av den framtagna modellen. Dels har jämförelser gjorts med den teori som idag används för att beskriva dessa effekter (Weibull teori), dels har effekterna analyserats med hjälp av sannolikhetsteoretiska samband (tillförlitlighetsteori) och slutligen har en kalibrering gjorts mot det format som används i den norm (BKR94) som används vid dimensionering av träkonstruktioner. Resultaten visar att virke från gran har en tämligen begränsad variation i hållfasthet inom ett element. Materialet är mer eller mindre homogent eftersom defekterna ligger förhållandevis tätt och skillnaden i hållfasthet mellan en defekt del och felfri del inte är så stor. Det finns dock möjlighet att i normformatet väsentligt kunna öka den bärförmåga man kan tillgodoräkna sig om man inför en funktion som beror på längd och lastförhållande. (Less)
Abstract
The load carrying capacity of a beam of structural timber is dependent both on the span of the beam and the type of loading. The longer the beam and the more uniform the moment distribution, the lower the load carrying capacity. This phenomenon is due to the variability of material properties within a piece of timber. This variability is, in turn, due to the presence of knots, the slope of grain and other abnormalities in the timber. The Swedish building code does not take into account the dependence on length and load, while the Eurocode includes the effect of length. The scope of this study was to investigate the variability of bending strength within and between members of structural timber and to find a way of modelling this... (More)
The load carrying capacity of a beam of structural timber is dependent both on the span of the beam and the type of loading. The longer the beam and the more uniform the moment distribution, the lower the load carrying capacity. This phenomenon is due to the variability of material properties within a piece of timber. This variability is, in turn, due to the presence of knots, the slope of grain and other abnormalities in the timber. The Swedish building code does not take into account the dependence on length and load, while the Eurocode includes the effect of length. The scope of this study was to investigate the variability of bending strength within and between members of structural timber and to find a way of modelling this variability. Using the model, the effect of length and type of loading on the load carrying capacity of a beam has been investigated. The experimental tests were performed on Norway Spruce (Picea Abies). The first part of this thesis presents a description of timber as a structural material, the Weibull theory on length and load configuration effects and reliability- based analysis of the length and load configuration effects. The next part deals with the experimental investigation, preceded by a section on the non-destructive grading of timber, including both visual and machine stress grading. The grading parameters are essential tools when deciding how and where to test the timber. In total, 673 sections distributed over 132 beams were tested successfully in several weak sections within a beam. The tests were performed using a newly developed test set-up. Comparative tests were performed using the test arrangement prescribed in the European code. No significant differences between the results from the different set-ups were found. Furthermore, the grading parameters were compared with the actual strength. A non-parametric study of the length and load configuration effect using only the test data gave a shape factor of 0.1 in the Weibull distribution. The length and load configuration effects were, in general, quite small. The simulation of tests of bending strength according to the European, North American and Australian codes gave small differences, although the codes differ as to where on a timber the test should be performed. A model of the variation of bending strength within and between timber members was developed. The model is based on stochastic variables such as the distance between weak sections, length of weak sections, strength of weak sections and strength between weak sections. Several alternative inputs were investigated. The thesis is concluded with the presentation of a study on length and load configuration effects using the statistical model of the variation in bending strength. The effect was studied using direct comparison of strengths (Weibull theory), reliability-based methods (level II) and a calibration using the Swedish code format. The results from the latter could be introduced in a code. Compared with today's design, the strength of a beam could be increased by 10 % (depending on the length and type of loading). (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Dr Rouger, Frederic, CTBA, Bordeaux, France
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
code, reliability-based design, Weibull, test standard, load configuration effect, length effect, weak section, machine grading, visual grading, variability, Structural timber, bending strength, simulation, monte carlo simulation., Building construction, Byggnadsteknik
in
Report TVBK
volume
1015
pages
280 pages
publisher
Division of Structural Engineering, Lund University, P.O Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden,
defense location
Lund Institute of Technology, V-building, Lecture Hall V:C, John Ericssonsv. 1, Lund (LTH, V-huset, sal V:C)
defense date
1999-04-13 10:15
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN: LUTVDG/TVBK - 99/1015 - SE (280p)
ISSN
0349-4969
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
7210fe51-728c-4a35-a80a-764bc71159b3 (old id 19352)
date added to LUP
2007-05-24 14:37:14
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:57
@phdthesis{7210fe51-728c-4a35-a80a-764bc71159b3,
  abstract     = {The load carrying capacity of a beam of structural timber is dependent both on the span of the beam and the type of loading. The longer the beam and the more uniform the moment distribution, the lower the load carrying capacity. This phenomenon is due to the variability of material properties within a piece of timber. This variability is, in turn, due to the presence of knots, the slope of grain and other abnormalities in the timber. The Swedish building code does not take into account the dependence on length and load, while the Eurocode includes the effect of length. The scope of this study was to investigate the variability of bending strength within and between members of structural timber and to find a way of modelling this variability. Using the model, the effect of length and type of loading on the load carrying capacity of a beam has been investigated. The experimental tests were performed on Norway Spruce (Picea Abies). The first part of this thesis presents a description of timber as a structural material, the Weibull theory on length and load configuration effects and reliability- based analysis of the length and load configuration effects. The next part deals with the experimental investigation, preceded by a section on the non-destructive grading of timber, including both visual and machine stress grading. The grading parameters are essential tools when deciding how and where to test the timber. In total, 673 sections distributed over 132 beams were tested successfully in several weak sections within a beam. The tests were performed using a newly developed test set-up. Comparative tests were performed using the test arrangement prescribed in the European code. No significant differences between the results from the different set-ups were found. Furthermore, the grading parameters were compared with the actual strength. A non-parametric study of the length and load configuration effect using only the test data gave a shape factor of 0.1 in the Weibull distribution. The length and load configuration effects were, in general, quite small. The simulation of tests of bending strength according to the European, North American and Australian codes gave small differences, although the codes differ as to where on a timber the test should be performed. A model of the variation of bending strength within and between timber members was developed. The model is based on stochastic variables such as the distance between weak sections, length of weak sections, strength of weak sections and strength between weak sections. Several alternative inputs were investigated. The thesis is concluded with the presentation of a study on length and load configuration effects using the statistical model of the variation in bending strength. The effect was studied using direct comparison of strengths (Weibull theory), reliability-based methods (level II) and a calibration using the Swedish code format. The results from the latter could be introduced in a code. Compared with today's design, the strength of a beam could be increased by 10 % (depending on the length and type of loading).},
  author       = {Isaksson, Tord},
  issn         = {0349-4969},
  keyword      = {code,reliability-based design,Weibull,test standard,load configuration effect,length effect,weak section,machine grading,visual grading,variability,Structural timber,bending strength,simulation,monte carlo simulation.,Building construction,Byggnadsteknik},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {280},
  publisher    = {Division of Structural Engineering, Lund University, P.O Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden,},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Report TVBK},
  title        = {Modelling the Variability of Bending Strength in Structural Timber - Length and Load Configuration Effects},
  volume       = {1015},
  year         = {1999},
}