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Lithic technology and behavioural modernity: New results from the Still Bay site, Hollow Rock Shelter, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Högberg, Anders LU and Larsson, Lars LU (2011) In Journal of Human Evolution 61. p.133-155
Abstract
The Hollow Rock Shelter site in Western Cape Province, South Africa, was excavated in 1993 and 2008. This study presents new results from a technological analysis of Still Bay points and bifacial flakes from the site. The results show that Still Bay points from the site are standardized tools. The points in the assemblage consist of a complex mixture of whole and fragmented points in all phases of production. The fragmentation degree is high; approximately 80% of the points are broken. A high proportion of bending fractures shows that several of the points were discarded due to production failures, and points with impact damage or hafting traces show that used points were left in the cave. This illustrates that the production of points as... (More)
The Hollow Rock Shelter site in Western Cape Province, South Africa, was excavated in 1993 and 2008. This study presents new results from a technological analysis of Still Bay points and bifacial flakes from the site. The results show that Still Bay points from the site are standardized tools. The points in the assemblage consist of a complex mixture of whole and fragmented points in all phases of production. The fragmentation degree is high; approximately 80% of the points are broken. A high proportion of bending fractures shows that several of the points were discarded due to production failures, and points with impact damage or hafting traces show that used points were left in the cave. This illustrates that the production of points as well as replacement of used points took place at the site. The result also shows that worked but not finished preforms and points were left at the site, suggestive of future preparation. The points were produced within the framework of three different chaînes opératoires, all ending up in a typologically uniform tool. This shows that the manufacture of Still Bay points should be regarded as a special bifacial technology, only partly comparable with other bifacial technologies. A raw material analysis shows that locally available quartz and quartzite were used in the production, and that points made of silcrete were brought to the site. Based on the technological analysis, a discussion of behavioural modernity, focusing on hypotheses about social interaction, experimentation, different strategies for learning to knap, and landscape memories, results in an interpretation that behavioural modernity was established at Hollow Rock Shelter in the Still Bay phase of the southern African Middle Stone Age. (Less)
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organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Journal of Human Evolution
volume
61
pages
133 - 155
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000292435700001
  • pmid:21470660
  • scopus:79958010184
ISSN
1095-8606
DOI
10.1016/j.jhevol.2011.02.006
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
351a27fd-ffac-4dae-b3bd-faffcc271e3b (old id 1937429)
date added to LUP
2011-05-16 09:11:09
date last changed
2017-10-01 04:04:42
@article{351a27fd-ffac-4dae-b3bd-faffcc271e3b,
  abstract     = {The Hollow Rock Shelter site in Western Cape Province, South Africa, was excavated in 1993 and 2008. This study presents new results from a technological analysis of Still Bay points and bifacial flakes from the site. The results show that Still Bay points from the site are standardized tools. The points in the assemblage consist of a complex mixture of whole and fragmented points in all phases of production. The fragmentation degree is high; approximately 80% of the points are broken. A high proportion of bending fractures shows that several of the points were discarded due to production failures, and points with impact damage or hafting traces show that used points were left in the cave. This illustrates that the production of points as well as replacement of used points took place at the site. The result also shows that worked but not finished preforms and points were left at the site, suggestive of future preparation. The points were produced within the framework of three different chaînes opératoires, all ending up in a typologically uniform tool. This shows that the manufacture of Still Bay points should be regarded as a special bifacial technology, only partly comparable with other bifacial technologies. A raw material analysis shows that locally available quartz and quartzite were used in the production, and that points made of silcrete were brought to the site. Based on the technological analysis, a discussion of behavioural modernity, focusing on hypotheses about social interaction, experimentation, different strategies for learning to knap, and landscape memories, results in an interpretation that behavioural modernity was established at Hollow Rock Shelter in the Still Bay phase of the southern African Middle Stone Age.},
  author       = {Högberg, Anders and Larsson, Lars},
  issn         = {1095-8606},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {133--155},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Journal of Human Evolution},
  title        = {Lithic technology and behavioural modernity: New results from the Still Bay site, Hollow Rock Shelter, Western Cape Province, South Africa.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2011.02.006},
  volume       = {61},
  year         = {2011},
}