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Cryptochromes and activity markers co-localize in bird retina during magnetic orientation

Mouritsen, H.; Janssen-Bienhold, U.; Liedvogel, Miriam LU ; Feenders, G.; Stalleicken, J.; Dirks, P. and Weiler, R. (2004) In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(39). p.14294-14299
Abstract
Migratory birds can use a magnetic compass for orientation during their migratory journeys covering thousands of kilometers. But how do they sense the reference direction provided by the Earth's magnetic field? Behavioral evidence and theoretical considerations have suggested that radical-pair processes in differently oriented, light-sensitive molecules of the retina could enable migratory birds to perceive the magnetic field as visual patterns. The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? Here, we show that at least one CRY1 and one CRY2 exist in the retina of migratory garden warblers and that garden-warbler CRY1 (gwCRY1) is cytosolic. We... (More)
Migratory birds can use a magnetic compass for orientation during their migratory journeys covering thousands of kilometers. But how do they sense the reference direction provided by the Earth's magnetic field? Behavioral evidence and theoretical considerations have suggested that radical-pair processes in differently oriented, light-sensitive molecules of the retina could enable migratory birds to perceive the magnetic field as visual patterns. The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? Here, we show that at least one CRY1 and one CRY2 exist in the retina of migratory garden warblers and that garden-warbler CRY1 (gwCRY1) is cytosolic. We also show that gwCRY1 is concentrated in specific cells, particularly in ganglion cells and in large displaced ganglion cells, which also showed high levels of neuronal activity at night, when our garden warblers performed magnetic orientation. In addition, there seem to be striking differences in CRY1 expression between migratory and nonmigratory songbirds at night. The difference in CRY1 expression between migrants and nonmigrants is particularly pronounced in the large displaced ganglion cells known to project exclusively to a brain area where magnetically sensitive neurons have been reported. Consequently, cytosolic gwCRY1 is well placed to possibly be the primary magnetic-sensory molecule required for light-mediated magnetoreception. (Less)
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author
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
volume
101
issue
39
pages
14294 - 14299
publisher
National Acad Sciences
external identifiers
  • scopus:4644300139
ISSN
1091-6490
DOI
10.1073/pnas.0405968101
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
cc3cb4f6-4ad0-44a5-be93-7ca320851d0c (old id 1976935)
date added to LUP
2011-06-14 16:50:24
date last changed
2017-12-10 03:55:23
@article{cc3cb4f6-4ad0-44a5-be93-7ca320851d0c,
  abstract     = {Migratory birds can use a magnetic compass for orientation during their migratory journeys covering thousands of kilometers. But how do they sense the reference direction provided by the Earth's magnetic field? Behavioral evidence and theoretical considerations have suggested that radical-pair processes in differently oriented, light-sensitive molecules of the retina could enable migratory birds to perceive the magnetic field as visual patterns. The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? Here, we show that at least one CRY1 and one CRY2 exist in the retina of migratory garden warblers and that garden-warbler CRY1 (gwCRY1) is cytosolic. We also show that gwCRY1 is concentrated in specific cells, particularly in ganglion cells and in large displaced ganglion cells, which also showed high levels of neuronal activity at night, when our garden warblers performed magnetic orientation. In addition, there seem to be striking differences in CRY1 expression between migratory and nonmigratory songbirds at night. The difference in CRY1 expression between migrants and nonmigrants is particularly pronounced in the large displaced ganglion cells known to project exclusively to a brain area where magnetically sensitive neurons have been reported. Consequently, cytosolic gwCRY1 is well placed to possibly be the primary magnetic-sensory molecule required for light-mediated magnetoreception.},
  author       = {Mouritsen, H. and Janssen-Bienhold, U. and Liedvogel, Miriam and Feenders, G. and Stalleicken, J. and Dirks, P. and Weiler, R.},
  issn         = {1091-6490},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {39},
  pages        = {14294--14299},
  publisher    = {National Acad Sciences},
  series       = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  title        = {Cryptochromes and activity markers co-localize in bird retina during magnetic orientation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0405968101},
  volume       = {101},
  year         = {2004},
}