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Promoting equality between women and men in bilateral development cooperation. Concepts, goals, rationales and institutional arrangements. Part One. Theory, practice and priorities for change. Part Two. Empirical studies in two sectors in Tanzania: Household water supplies and health development.

Hannan, Carolyn LU (2000) In Meddelanden från Lunds universitets geografiska institution. Avhandlingar 138.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

I mer än tre årtionden har kvinnors situation och främjandet av jämställdhet mellan kvinnor och män lyfts fram inom utvecklingssamarbetet. Bilaterala organisationer har gjort politiska åtaganden och utvecklat strategier, metoder och instrument för att uppnå detta viktiga mål. Som uppföljning på FNs fjärde kvinnokonferens i Peking (1995) är det viktigt att analysera vad som uppnåtts och identifiera de förändringarna som behövs för att ytterligare flytta fram positionerna i det nya århundradet. Avhandlingen har som syfte att analysera vad som uppnåtts såväl i form av politiskt beslutsfattande som konkreta aktiviter och resultat. I avhandlingen belyses viktiga frågor som bör uppmärksammas om... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

I mer än tre årtionden har kvinnors situation och främjandet av jämställdhet mellan kvinnor och män lyfts fram inom utvecklingssamarbetet. Bilaterala organisationer har gjort politiska åtaganden och utvecklat strategier, metoder och instrument för att uppnå detta viktiga mål. Som uppföljning på FNs fjärde kvinnokonferens i Peking (1995) är det viktigt att analysera vad som uppnåtts och identifiera de förändringarna som behövs för att ytterligare flytta fram positionerna i det nya århundradet. Avhandlingen har som syfte att analysera vad som uppnåtts såväl i form av politiskt beslutsfattande som konkreta aktiviter och resultat. I avhandlingen belyses viktiga frågor som bör uppmärksammas om främjandet av jämställdhet ska bli central i framtidens bilateralt utvecklingssamarbete. I Del Ett ges en historisk översikt av främjandet av jämställdhet på global nivå genom FN-systemet och inom det bilaterala utvecklingssamarbetet. Tre viktiga områden identiferas där ökad tydlighet behövs: begrepp, mål och institutionella förutsättningar. Otydlighet kring viktiga basbegrepp som jämställdhet och genus (gender) samt otydliga målformuleringar innebär ett stort hinder för effektiva satsningar på jämställdhet inom biståndet. Oklarhet om två viktiga angreppssätt, utvidgning av kvinnors valmöjligheter och makt (empowerment) samt satsningar för att jämställdhetsmålet skall vara en centralt och integrerad del av alla utvecklingsansträngningar (mainstreaming), har också hindrat förverkligandet av uppställda politiska mål. Grundläggande institutionella frågor, till exempel vem som skall ha ansvar för främjandet av jämställdhet inom organisationer, måste också uppmärksammas. Särskilt viktigt är att fastställa att ledningen i biståndsorganisationer måste ta ett övergripande ansvar för jämställdhet samt stödja kompetensutveckling och aktivt uppmuntra och kräva ansvar av all personal. Del Två presenterar slutsatser från empiriska studier om jämställdhet i två sektorer i Tanzania - vattenförsörjning och hälsovård. Studierna baseras på kontakter med kvinnor och män i byar i fyra olika regioner. Studierna bedrevs i mitten av 80-talet. Resultaten från fältarbetet kompleteras med forskningsresultat från samma sektorer under senare tid. Slutsatserna belyser att det, trots många viktiga framsteg i form av politiska åtaganden, utvecking av strategier, metoder och instrument, finns mycket kvar att göra innan jämställdhet blivit en central fråga inom biståndet. Slutsatserna i avhandlingen betonar vikten av att stärka kvinnors röst och makt, att analysera makt och beslutsfattande mellan kvinnor och män på alla nivåer, att förstå mer om mäns attityder och beteende samt att engagera män mera aktivt i jämställdhetsarbetet. I avhandlingen poängteras också behovet av att särskilt analysera organisationskulturen inom alla organisationer i biståndssamarbetet, inklusive biståndsorganisationer, till exempel det outalade könsperspektivet som ligger bakom värderingar, normer, regler, nätverk, inflytande i beslutsfattande och karriärmöjligheter. Framförallt betonas behovet av politiska vilja att satsa tillräckliga resurser för att uppnå erforderliga förändringar. (Less)
Abstract
Gender equality has been on the development cooperation agenda for more than three decades. Bilateral agencies have developed policies, strategies, methodologies and tools to support achievement of this important goal. Following the Fourth United Nations Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995 it is important to take stock of the progress that has been made, and identify the changes needed for moving the issue forward in the next millenium. This thesis aims to look at what has been achieved both at the level of policy development and in practical interventions and highlights some of the main areas needing attention if gender equality is to become a central issue in development cooperation in the future. Part One of the thesis presents a... (More)
Gender equality has been on the development cooperation agenda for more than three decades. Bilateral agencies have developed policies, strategies, methodologies and tools to support achievement of this important goal. Following the Fourth United Nations Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995 it is important to take stock of the progress that has been made, and identify the changes needed for moving the issue forward in the next millenium. This thesis aims to look at what has been achieved both at the level of policy development and in practical interventions and highlights some of the main areas needing attention if gender equality is to become a central issue in development cooperation in the future. Part One of the thesis presents a historical overview of attention to gender equality in development cooperation at global level through the United Nations system, and outlines the development of policy rationales and strategies within bilateral agencies. Three key areas for further development are identified - concepts, goals and rationales, and institutional arrangements within bilateral agencies themselves. Lack of clarity on basic concepts such as equality and gender and vague noncommital goal formulations have been a considerable hinder to effective promotion of gender equality in bilateral development cooperation. Lack of understanding of two important approaches or strategies, empowerment and mainstreaming, has also constituted a major handicap to efforts to achieve gender equality. Organizational aspects, in particular related to issues of responsibility and accountability at management levels, have constrained effective implementation of these strategies. Part Two of the thesis presents empirical research from Tanzania on two sector areas, household water supplies and health development. The fieldwork was carried out in the 1980s in 11 villages in four regions in Tanzania and is based on contact with women and men at household level. The results of the fieldwork are compared with the findings from other more recent studies in the same fields. The conclusions highlight that, despite important changes made in the past decade, much remains to be done before gender equality is a central issue in the development of these two sectors. The conclusions of the thesis highlight the importance of strengthening women´s voice, giving greater attention to gender relations and bringing in more men as allies, and establishing greater political commitment to mainstreaming, women´s empowerment and the necessary institutional changes for gender equality. The importance of analysing the organisational cultures in organizations involved in development cooperation, including bilateral agencies themselves, in terms of gender perspectives in values, norms, rules and regulations, networks, access to decision-making processes and career advancement potential, is raised. The thesis points to the need for greater political will to allocate necessary human and financial resources to promotion of gender equality in development cooperation. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Christiansen, Sofus, Geography Department, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
water supplies, United Nations, Tanzania, organizational change, mainstreaming, institutional development, human geography, health development, feminist geography, Gender equality, bilateral development cooperation, women´s empowerment., Social geography, Socialgeografi
in
Meddelanden från Lunds universitets geografiska institution. Avhandlingar
volume
138
pages
741 pages
publisher
Department of Social and Economic Geography, Lund University
defense location
Sölvegatan 13, 3rd floor, Lund, Sweden.
defense date
2000-03-30 13:15
ISSN
0346-6787
ISBN
91-973856-0-3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
ef6f799d-1c56-4587-b31f-3694890dc02e (old id 19859)
date added to LUP
2007-05-25 12:51:10
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:57
@phdthesis{ef6f799d-1c56-4587-b31f-3694890dc02e,
  abstract     = {Gender equality has been on the development cooperation agenda for more than three decades. Bilateral agencies have developed policies, strategies, methodologies and tools to support achievement of this important goal. Following the Fourth United Nations Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995 it is important to take stock of the progress that has been made, and identify the changes needed for moving the issue forward in the next millenium. This thesis aims to look at what has been achieved both at the level of policy development and in practical interventions and highlights some of the main areas needing attention if gender equality is to become a central issue in development cooperation in the future. Part One of the thesis presents a historical overview of attention to gender equality in development cooperation at global level through the United Nations system, and outlines the development of policy rationales and strategies within bilateral agencies. Three key areas for further development are identified - concepts, goals and rationales, and institutional arrangements within bilateral agencies themselves. Lack of clarity on basic concepts such as equality and gender and vague noncommital goal formulations have been a considerable hinder to effective promotion of gender equality in bilateral development cooperation. Lack of understanding of two important approaches or strategies, empowerment and mainstreaming, has also constituted a major handicap to efforts to achieve gender equality. Organizational aspects, in particular related to issues of responsibility and accountability at management levels, have constrained effective implementation of these strategies. Part Two of the thesis presents empirical research from Tanzania on two sector areas, household water supplies and health development. The fieldwork was carried out in the 1980s in 11 villages in four regions in Tanzania and is based on contact with women and men at household level. The results of the fieldwork are compared with the findings from other more recent studies in the same fields. The conclusions highlight that, despite important changes made in the past decade, much remains to be done before gender equality is a central issue in the development of these two sectors. The conclusions of the thesis highlight the importance of strengthening women´s voice, giving greater attention to gender relations and bringing in more men as allies, and establishing greater political commitment to mainstreaming, women´s empowerment and the necessary institutional changes for gender equality. The importance of analysing the organisational cultures in organizations involved in development cooperation, including bilateral agencies themselves, in terms of gender perspectives in values, norms, rules and regulations, networks, access to decision-making processes and career advancement potential, is raised. The thesis points to the need for greater political will to allocate necessary human and financial resources to promotion of gender equality in development cooperation.},
  author       = {Hannan, Carolyn},
  isbn         = {91-973856-0-3},
  issn         = {0346-6787},
  keyword      = {water supplies,United Nations,Tanzania,organizational change,mainstreaming,institutional development,human geography,health development,feminist geography,Gender equality,bilateral development cooperation,women´s empowerment.,Social geography,Socialgeografi},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {741},
  publisher    = {Department of Social and Economic Geography, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Meddelanden från Lunds universitets geografiska institution. Avhandlingar},
  title        = {Promoting equality between women and men in bilateral development cooperation. Concepts, goals, rationales and institutional arrangements. Part One. Theory, practice and priorities for change. Part Two. Empirical studies in two sectors in Tanzania: Household water supplies and health development.},
  volume       = {138},
  year         = {2000},
}