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Biskop och stad : aspekter av urbanisering och sociala rum i medeltidens Linköping

Tagesson, Göran LU (2002) In Lund Studies in Medieval Archaeology 30.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Syftet med avhandlingen är att studera och analysera en historisk epok och dess människor genom deras materiella kultur och hur de sociala relationerna har manifesterats i rummet. Som fokus fungerar den medeltida biskopsstaden Linköping, en plats som skiftat utseende, funktion och betydelse genom olika perioder, men hela tiden med starka ideologiska uttryck.



Linköping fungerade tidigt som en central plats i landskapet Östergötland; som tingsplats, viktig knutpunkt för land- och vattenvägar och som kyrkligt centrum. Den blivande staden med sina två medeltida kyrkor kan uppfattas som en medveten ideologisk satsning från en tidig kungamakt med politiska ambitioner. Under... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Syftet med avhandlingen är att studera och analysera en historisk epok och dess människor genom deras materiella kultur och hur de sociala relationerna har manifesterats i rummet. Som fokus fungerar den medeltida biskopsstaden Linköping, en plats som skiftat utseende, funktion och betydelse genom olika perioder, men hela tiden med starka ideologiska uttryck.



Linköping fungerade tidigt som en central plats i landskapet Östergötland; som tingsplats, viktig knutpunkt för land- och vattenvägar och som kyrkligt centrum. Den blivande staden med sina två medeltida kyrkor kan uppfattas som en medveten ideologisk satsning från en tidig kungamakt med politiska ambitioner. Under 1200-talet har kyrkans organisation konsoliderats, med ett nära samarbete med den allt starkare kungamakten, vilket uttryckts genom det nya stora katedralbygget och inrättandet av ett domkapitel. Samtidigt som Linköping fungerade som en viktig plats i landskapet har orten varit obetydlig. Först på 1280-talet har staden Linköping kommit till som en medveten grundläggning, sannolikt av kung Magnus Ladulås och hans bror biskop Bengt. Tillkomsten av ett franciskankonvent 1287 kan ses som det första steget att skapa en stad. Vid sekelskiftet 1300 finns både skriftliga uppgifter om tomter och gårdar i staden liksom skiftliga uppgifter om en rådsinstitution. De arkeologiska beläggen för en stadsbebyggelse kommer under samma tid, men det är först vid 1300-talets slut som det finns en tydlig urban utveckling på stadsgårdarna. Stadsrummet utvidgades och bebyggelsen blev tätare, en tydlig utveckling som intressant nog inte finns belagd i det skriftliga källmaterialet. Under 1300-talets andra hälft skapades ett residerande kapitel, dvs. en stor del av domkapitlets ledamöter (kaniker och prebendater) flyttade från prebendenas huvudgårdar i stiftet till stiftsstaden. I Linköping skapades en speciell domkyrkostad, en krans av stora gårdar kring domkyrkan, flertalet med stenhus i flera våningar. Dessa residensgårdar har visserligen lånat ett aristokratiskt stilideal och som fungerat som ett led i att stärka kyrkan i dess kamp för att bevara gamla privilegier i tid av inbördeskrig, pestepidemi och ekonomisk kris. Residensgårdarna kan ses som ett exempel på ett medvetet sätt att omforma rummet och topografin och skapa en speciell form av materiell kultur med ett tydligt budskap. I samband med reformationen har stiftsstadens speciella utformning återigen förändrats, grunden för stadens ekonomi rycktes undan och Linköping drabbades hårt av krig och eldsvådor. Ombyggnaden av biskopsborgen till ett renässansslott är en tydlig exponent för den nya nationalstaten, men det var först när landshövdingeämbetet inrättades på 1640-talet och Linköping fick en ny roll som administrativt centrum i Östergötland som förändringarna i stadsbilden kan iakttas i det arkeologiska källmaterialet. Av analysen framgår det att de olika rummen och den materiella kulturen har skiftat utseende, funktion och betydelse under stadens olika historiska perioder. Rummet och den materiella kulturen kan betraktas som olika medier, där den sociala strukturen manifesteras och materialiseras. En tydlig tendens i Linköpings medeltida historia är att de olika sociala grupperna tillmätt staden en med tiden allt större betydelse som mötesplats för den sociala interaktionen. Vi kan på så sätt förstå staden som en av många centrala platser där mötet mellan individer och grupper äger rum. Reproduceras och med tiden omformas. (Less)
Abstract
Is it possible to understand a society and a certain place that is long since gone? The aim of this thesis is to study and analyse a historic period and its people through the remains of their material culture, the social relations and how these were materialized in an urban setting. The main subject of the empirical study, the medieval episcopal town of Linköping, has shifted out-look, function and meaning during different periods, but always with strong ideological expressions. Linköping can be interpreted as a central place in a large landscape – the diocese, the judicial district as well as a place for communications. The making of the new place – with two new churches situated at the point between the old inhabited landscape and a... (More)
Is it possible to understand a society and a certain place that is long since gone? The aim of this thesis is to study and analyse a historic period and its people through the remains of their material culture, the social relations and how these were materialized in an urban setting. The main subject of the empirical study, the medieval episcopal town of Linköping, has shifted out-look, function and meaning during different periods, but always with strong ideological expressions. Linköping can be interpreted as a central place in a large landscape – the diocese, the judicial district as well as a place for communications. The making of the new place – with two new churches situated at the point between the old inhabited landscape and a virgin new land – may be interpreted as a deliberate act of creating an ideologically important place, sustaining the claims of the new kingdom to come. During the 13th century the church was consolidated, a period that saw an immense building programme at the cathedral, the bishop’s palace as well as the foundation of the chapter, but still nothing that could be interpreted as an urban settlement. Not until the 1280s, Linköping was deliberately founded, probably by the king Magnus Ladulås and his brother bishop Bengt. The advent of the franciscan convent may be seen as the birth of the town. At the beginning of the 14th century there are also the first archaeological indications of an urban settlement. Finally, the written records gives a very clear indication of urban plots and yards, as well as clear indications of the legislative and administrative network. It is, however, not until the end of the 14th century that we have indications of an expanding and denser settlement and a more varied material culture. During the second half of the 14th century a residing chapter was created, i.e. a lots of canons (members of the chapter) moving from manors in the countryside and settling down at large yards around the cathedral. These residences, with stone-houses in multiple storeys and two-room plan, are interpreted as an aristocratic feature, especially suited to act as a symbol of unity and strength, in a hostile period when the old priviliges of the church were questioned. The residences may be seen as an obvious example of creating an ideological space, a reshaping of the topography in order to create a certain kind of material culture with a certain message. From the analyse we learn that space and material culture changes features, functions and meanings during diffferent historic periods. Space and material culture may be interpreted as different medias, in which social structure is mediated and materialised. A tendency in the Middle Age history of Linköping is that different social actors and groups have used the town as a meeting place for social interaction. By identifying these relations and how they were altered in a changing society, it is possible to study the changing society itself. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Docent Hiekkanen, Markus, Helsinki
organization
alternative title
Bishop and Town : Aspects of Urbanization and Social Space in Medieval Linköping
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Arkeologi, Archaeology, Medeltidens historia, Medieval history, sacral topography, residential yards, chapter, bishop, urban identity, urbanization, material culture, spatial analyses, Sweden, Middle Ages
in
Lund Studies in Medieval Archaeology
volume
30
pages
475 pages
publisher
Almqvist & Wiksell International
defense location
Samarkand AF-huset, Lund
defense date
2002-05-24 10:15
ISSN
0283-6874
ISBN
91-22-01957-X
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
d167bd6e-00cc-400f-8b19-a35905ad2068 (old id 20723)
date added to LUP
2007-05-28 11:12:20
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:53
@phdthesis{d167bd6e-00cc-400f-8b19-a35905ad2068,
  abstract     = {Is it possible to understand a society and a certain place that is long since gone? The aim of this thesis is to study and analyse a historic period and its people through the remains of their material culture, the social relations and how these were materialized in an urban setting. The main subject of the empirical study, the medieval episcopal town of Linköping, has shifted out-look, function and meaning during different periods, but always with strong ideological expressions. Linköping can be interpreted as a central place in a large landscape – the diocese, the judicial district as well as a place for communications. The making of the new place – with two new churches situated at the point between the old inhabited landscape and a virgin new land – may be interpreted as a deliberate act of creating an ideologically important place, sustaining the claims of the new kingdom to come. During the 13th century the church was consolidated, a period that saw an immense building programme at the cathedral, the bishop’s palace as well as the foundation of the chapter, but still nothing that could be interpreted as an urban settlement. Not until the 1280s, Linköping was deliberately founded, probably by the king Magnus Ladulås and his brother bishop Bengt. The advent of the franciscan convent may be seen as the birth of the town. At the beginning of the 14th century there are also the first archaeological indications of an urban settlement. Finally, the written records gives a very clear indication of urban plots and yards, as well as clear indications of the legislative and administrative network. It is, however, not until the end of the 14th century that we have indications of an expanding and denser settlement and a more varied material culture. During the second half of the 14th century a residing chapter was created, i.e. a lots of canons (members of the chapter) moving from manors in the countryside and settling down at large yards around the cathedral. These residences, with stone-houses in multiple storeys and two-room plan, are interpreted as an aristocratic feature, especially suited to act as a symbol of unity and strength, in a hostile period when the old priviliges of the church were questioned. The residences may be seen as an obvious example of creating an ideological space, a reshaping of the topography in order to create a certain kind of material culture with a certain message. From the analyse we learn that space and material culture changes features, functions and meanings during diffferent historic periods. Space and material culture may be interpreted as different medias, in which social structure is mediated and materialised. A tendency in the Middle Age history of Linköping is that different social actors and groups have used the town as a meeting place for social interaction. By identifying these relations and how they were altered in a changing society, it is possible to study the changing society itself.},
  author       = {Tagesson, Göran},
  isbn         = {91-22-01957-X},
  issn         = {0283-6874},
  keyword      = {Arkeologi,Archaeology,Medeltidens historia,Medieval history,sacral topography,residential yards,chapter,bishop,urban identity,urbanization,material culture,spatial analyses,Sweden,Middle Ages},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {475},
  publisher    = {Almqvist & Wiksell International},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund Studies in Medieval Archaeology},
  title        = {Biskop och stad : aspekter av urbanisering och sociala rum i medeltidens Linköping},
  volume       = {30},
  year         = {2002},
}