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Take care in how you store your PD fluids: Actual temperature determines the balance between reactive and non-reactive GDPs

Erixon, Martin LU ; Wieslander, Anders; Linden, Torbjörn; Carlsson, Ola; Forsbäck, Gunita; Svensson, Eva; Jönsson, Jan Åke LU and Kjellstrand, Per (2005) In Peritoneal Dialysis International 25(6). p.583-590
Abstract
Objective: During heat sterilization and during prolonged storage, glucose in peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF) degrades to carbonyl compounds commonly known as glucose degradation products (GDPs). Of these, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) is the most cytotoxic. It is an intermediate in degradation between 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF). We have earlier reported that there seems to be equilibrium between these GDPs in PDF. The aim of the present study was to investigate details of this equilibrium. Methods: Aqueous solutions of pure 3-DG, 3,4-DGE, and 5-HMF were incubated at 40 degrees C for 40 days., Conventional and low-GDP fluids were incubated at various temperatures for up to, 3 weeks.... (More)
Objective: During heat sterilization and during prolonged storage, glucose in peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF) degrades to carbonyl compounds commonly known as glucose degradation products (GDPs). Of these, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) is the most cytotoxic. It is an intermediate in degradation between 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF). We have earlier reported that there seems to be equilibrium between these GDPs in PDF. The aim of the present study was to investigate details of this equilibrium. Methods: Aqueous solutions of pure 3-DG, 3,4-DGE, and 5-HMF were incubated at 40 degrees C for 40 days., Conventional and low-GDP fluids were incubated at various temperatures for up to, 3 weeks. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, 3-DG, 3,4-DGE, and 5-HMF were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Incubation of 100 mu mol/L 3,4-DGE resulted in the production of 36 mu mol/L 3-DG, 4 mu mol/L 5-HMF, and 40 mu mol/L unidentified substances. With the same incubation, 200 mu mol/L 3-DG was converted to 9 mu mol/L 3,4-DGE, 6 mu mol/L 5-HMF, and 14 mu mol/L unidentified substances. By contrast, 100 mu mol/L 5-HMF was uninfluenced by incubation. In a conventional PDF incubated at 60 degrees C for 1 day, the 3,4-DGE concentration increased from 14 to a maximum of 49 mu mol/L. When the fluids were returned to room temperature, the concentration decreased but did not reach original values until after 40 days. In a low GDP fluid, 3,4-DGE increased and decreased in the same manner as in the conventional fluid but reached a maximum of only 0.8 mu moL/L. Conclusions: Considerable amounts of 3,4-DGE maybe recruited by increases in temperature in conventional PDFs. Lowering the temperature will again reduce the concentration but much more time will be needed. Precursors for 3,4-DGE recruitment are most probably 3-DG and the enol 3-deoxyaldose-2-ene, but not 5-HMF. Considering the ease at which 3,4-DGE is recruited from its pool of precursors and the difficulty of getting rid of it again, one should be extremely careful with the temperatures conventional PDFs are exposed to. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
GDPs, temperature, 4-DGE, 3, storage, glucose
in
Peritoneal Dialysis International
volume
25
issue
6
pages
583 - 590
publisher
Multimed Inc.
external identifiers
  • wos:000234054800015
  • scopus:30944465684
ISSN
1718-4304
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
e0549ffd-62bf-4537-a7dc-773babb10479 (old id 210711)
alternative location
http://www.pdiconnect.com/cgi/content/abstract/25/6/583
date added to LUP
2007-09-21 14:01:27
date last changed
2017-01-01 06:48:56
@article{e0549ffd-62bf-4537-a7dc-773babb10479,
  abstract     = {Objective: During heat sterilization and during prolonged storage, glucose in peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF) degrades to carbonyl compounds commonly known as glucose degradation products (GDPs). Of these, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) is the most cytotoxic. It is an intermediate in degradation between 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF). We have earlier reported that there seems to be equilibrium between these GDPs in PDF. The aim of the present study was to investigate details of this equilibrium. Methods: Aqueous solutions of pure 3-DG, 3,4-DGE, and 5-HMF were incubated at 40 degrees C for 40 days., Conventional and low-GDP fluids were incubated at various temperatures for up to, 3 weeks. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, 3-DG, 3,4-DGE, and 5-HMF were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Incubation of 100 mu mol/L 3,4-DGE resulted in the production of 36 mu mol/L 3-DG, 4 mu mol/L 5-HMF, and 40 mu mol/L unidentified substances. With the same incubation, 200 mu mol/L 3-DG was converted to 9 mu mol/L 3,4-DGE, 6 mu mol/L 5-HMF, and 14 mu mol/L unidentified substances. By contrast, 100 mu mol/L 5-HMF was uninfluenced by incubation. In a conventional PDF incubated at 60 degrees C for 1 day, the 3,4-DGE concentration increased from 14 to a maximum of 49 mu mol/L. When the fluids were returned to room temperature, the concentration decreased but did not reach original values until after 40 days. In a low GDP fluid, 3,4-DGE increased and decreased in the same manner as in the conventional fluid but reached a maximum of only 0.8 mu moL/L. Conclusions: Considerable amounts of 3,4-DGE maybe recruited by increases in temperature in conventional PDFs. Lowering the temperature will again reduce the concentration but much more time will be needed. Precursors for 3,4-DGE recruitment are most probably 3-DG and the enol 3-deoxyaldose-2-ene, but not 5-HMF. Considering the ease at which 3,4-DGE is recruited from its pool of precursors and the difficulty of getting rid of it again, one should be extremely careful with the temperatures conventional PDFs are exposed to.},
  author       = {Erixon, Martin and Wieslander, Anders and Linden, Torbjörn and Carlsson, Ola and Forsbäck, Gunita and Svensson, Eva and Jönsson, Jan Åke and Kjellstrand, Per},
  issn         = {1718-4304},
  keyword      = {GDPs,temperature,4-DGE,3,storage,glucose},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {583--590},
  publisher    = {Multimed Inc.},
  series       = {Peritoneal Dialysis International},
  title        = {Take care in how you store your PD fluids: Actual temperature determines the balance between reactive and non-reactive GDPs},
  volume       = {25},
  year         = {2005},
}