Advanced

Glömda gudstecken : från fornkyrklig dopliturgi till allmogens bomärken

Skånberg, Tuve LU (2003) In Bibliotheca Historico-Ecclesiastica Lundensis 45.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Bomärken har använts som ägarbeteckning och signatur i Norden in på 1800-talet, och i vissa reliktområden intill nutid. Bomärkena återfinns t.ex. i mantalslängder, jordaböcker och bouppteckningar, men även inskurna på äldre redskap, husgeråd och annat lösöre.



Bomärkena har av somliga forskare ansetts ha utformats slumpvis, enbart med syftet att kunna skilja en bomärkesmarkering från en annan. I föreliggande bok, som är en doktorsavhandling i kyrkohistoria, visas i motsats till detta antagande att bomärkena har en lång och fascinerande historia, och utgör en hittills okänd symbolvärld. Med utgångspunkt från 27 595 bomärkesbelägg från de nordiska länderna, England, Tyskland,... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Bomärken har använts som ägarbeteckning och signatur i Norden in på 1800-talet, och i vissa reliktområden intill nutid. Bomärkena återfinns t.ex. i mantalslängder, jordaböcker och bouppteckningar, men även inskurna på äldre redskap, husgeråd och annat lösöre.



Bomärkena har av somliga forskare ansetts ha utformats slumpvis, enbart med syftet att kunna skilja en bomärkesmarkering från en annan. I föreliggande bok, som är en doktorsavhandling i kyrkohistoria, visas i motsats till detta antagande att bomärkena har en lång och fascinerande historia, och utgör en hittills okänd symbolvärld. Med utgångspunkt från 27 595 bomärkesbelägg från de nordiska länderna, England, Tyskland, Schweiz och Lettland presenteras ett 80-tal olika bomärkestyper med mer än 230 varianter. Bomärkestyperna visar sig utgöra medeltida, kristna symboler som kors, treenighetssymboler, Kristus- och Mariamonogram samt olika helgonattribut.



Bomärkenas ursprung kan spåras tillbaka till det korstecken som tecknades i pannan på den som döptes enligt fornkyrklig dopliturgi och som tolkades som ett Kristi bomärke. Omkring 380 e.Kr. uppträder de första bomärkena som kors och korsvarianter fogade till egyptiska notariers namnunderskrifter på olika dokument på papyrus. (Less)
Abstract
The pioneering academic research on Merchant Marks (also known as identity marks, personal marks, ownership marks, identification marks, Hausmarken, Hofmarken, Marques de Propriété, bomärken) was done by professor Homeyer (1870). Since 1870 there has been an ongoing debate among scholars whether Merchant Marks are simply formed by chance and coincidence, as stated by Rehnberg (1938, 1951), Scheffer (1957) and Nahlén (1992) or whether they are variations of Christian symbols, especially the cross, as stated by Sisson (1929) and Stevenson (1954). Other scholars like Dallaway (1793), Ewing (1852), Rylands (1911), Hudd (1911), Davies (1935), Ruppel (1939), Kuhlicke (1952), Lindström (1964), Girling (1964a), Tønnesen (1968) and Guler (1992) are... (More)
The pioneering academic research on Merchant Marks (also known as identity marks, personal marks, ownership marks, identification marks, Hausmarken, Hofmarken, Marques de Propriété, bomärken) was done by professor Homeyer (1870). Since 1870 there has been an ongoing debate among scholars whether Merchant Marks are simply formed by chance and coincidence, as stated by Rehnberg (1938, 1951), Scheffer (1957) and Nahlén (1992) or whether they are variations of Christian symbols, especially the cross, as stated by Sisson (1929) and Stevenson (1954). Other scholars like Dallaway (1793), Ewing (1852), Rylands (1911), Hudd (1911), Davies (1935), Ruppel (1939), Kuhlicke (1952), Lindström (1964), Girling (1964a), Tønnesen (1968) and Guler (1992) are uncertain of any symbolic meaning of Merchant Marks, but suggest one or several interpretations of various examples.



By collecting a reference material of 27,595 examples of Merchant Marks from Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland and Latvia this doctoral thesis has by statistic evaluation proved that these marks are by no means coincidental, but are variations of about 80 types, being identified as mediaeval Christian symbols. The most common symbol is the cross and variations of the cross, making up more than half of the reference material. Other common symbols are Alpha, Omega, monograms of the names Jesus, Christ and Mary, using Greek, Latin and even runic letters (Christogram, Chi Rho monogram, Labarum Cross). Not uncommon are Pentagram, symbols of the Trinity, and attributes of Christ and Mary. Some are attributes of saints like Peter, Olav, Hallvard, Laurentius, Brigitte, Gertrud and the archangel Michael.



The origin of the use of Merchant Marks is traced back to the baptismal liturgy of the early church. Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia, Syria, (AD 392-428) interprets the cross signed on the forehead of those being baptised as a property mark of Christ, to be compared with property marks on livestock or soldiers denoting their Lord. Lilliebjörn (1933) in his doctoral thesis shows that in Roman time slaves, prisoners of war and soldiers were marked on their forehead (and hand) by burning or tattooing with the mark of their owner or Emperor. This custom was used also in the mystery cults, to denote membership in a cult and being a servant of a certain god. Even some Christians tattooed a cross on their forehead.



The earliest examples of the kind of Merchant Marks found in the reference material are from Egyptian papyri ca AD 380, with the first example in AD 378. Scribes before ca AD 380 never used to add a figure of any kind to their signatures. The new practice was established fast, and almost without exception a cross, or a variation of a cross-related device like the Labarum Cross, was added to the signature of the scribe. The new practice coincides with the inauguration of the East Roman Emperor Theodosius the Great (AD 378-395), who legislated Christianity as the only lawful religion in the empire. This new practice developed to a differentiation of marks for the practical cause of identification. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Docent Jacobsson, Carina, Stockholm
organization
alternative title
Forgotten Signs of God
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
signature, Egyptian papyri, baptismal liturgy, Chi Rho monogram, Christogram, Omega, Alpha, Christian symbols, Homeyer, bomärken, Marques de Propriété, Hofmarken, Hausmarken, identification marks, ownership marks, personal marks, Merchant Marks, identity marks, History of the Christian church, Kristna kyrkans historia
in
Bibliotheca Historico-Ecclesiastica Lundensis
volume
45
pages
248 pages
publisher
Lunds universitets kyrkohistoriska arkiv
defense location
Aten, Akademiska Föreningen, Sandgatan 2
defense date
2003-05-09 13:15
ISSN
0346-5438
ISBN
91-89515-06-4
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
ac604556-dedc-49cf-8975-4b8173578e20 (old id 21154)
date added to LUP
2007-05-25 14:15:44
date last changed
2018-05-29 12:14:22
@phdthesis{ac604556-dedc-49cf-8975-4b8173578e20,
  abstract     = {The pioneering academic research on Merchant Marks (also known as identity marks, personal marks, ownership marks, identification marks, Hausmarken, Hofmarken, Marques de Propriété, bomärken) was done by professor Homeyer (1870). Since 1870 there has been an ongoing debate among scholars whether Merchant Marks are simply formed by chance and coincidence, as stated by Rehnberg (1938, 1951), Scheffer (1957) and Nahlén (1992) or whether they are variations of Christian symbols, especially the cross, as stated by Sisson (1929) and Stevenson (1954). Other scholars like Dallaway (1793), Ewing (1852), Rylands (1911), Hudd (1911), Davies (1935), Ruppel (1939), Kuhlicke (1952), Lindström (1964), Girling (1964a), Tønnesen (1968) and Guler (1992) are uncertain of any symbolic meaning of Merchant Marks, but suggest one or several interpretations of various examples.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
By collecting a reference material of 27,595 examples of Merchant Marks from Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland and Latvia this doctoral thesis has by statistic evaluation proved that these marks are by no means coincidental, but are variations of about 80 types, being identified as mediaeval Christian symbols. The most common symbol is the cross and variations of the cross, making up more than half of the reference material. Other common symbols are Alpha, Omega, monograms of the names Jesus, Christ and Mary, using Greek, Latin and even runic letters (Christogram, Chi Rho monogram, Labarum Cross). Not uncommon are Pentagram, symbols of the Trinity, and attributes of Christ and Mary. Some are attributes of saints like Peter, Olav, Hallvard, Laurentius, Brigitte, Gertrud and the archangel Michael.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The origin of the use of Merchant Marks is traced back to the baptismal liturgy of the early church. Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia, Syria, (AD 392-428) interprets the cross signed on the forehead of those being baptised as a property mark of Christ, to be compared with property marks on livestock or soldiers denoting their Lord. Lilliebjörn (1933) in his doctoral thesis shows that in Roman time slaves, prisoners of war and soldiers were marked on their forehead (and hand) by burning or tattooing with the mark of their owner or Emperor. This custom was used also in the mystery cults, to denote membership in a cult and being a servant of a certain god. Even some Christians tattooed a cross on their forehead.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The earliest examples of the kind of Merchant Marks found in the reference material are from Egyptian papyri ca AD 380, with the first example in AD 378. Scribes before ca AD 380 never used to add a figure of any kind to their signatures. The new practice was established fast, and almost without exception a cross, or a variation of a cross-related device like the Labarum Cross, was added to the signature of the scribe. The new practice coincides with the inauguration of the East Roman Emperor Theodosius the Great (AD 378-395), who legislated Christianity as the only lawful religion in the empire. This new practice developed to a differentiation of marks for the practical cause of identification.},
  author       = {Skånberg, Tuve},
  isbn         = {91-89515-06-4},
  issn         = {0346-5438},
  keyword      = {signature,Egyptian papyri,baptismal liturgy,Chi Rho monogram,Christogram,Omega,Alpha,Christian symbols,Homeyer,bomärken,Marques de Propriété,Hofmarken,Hausmarken,identification marks,ownership marks,personal marks,Merchant Marks,identity marks,History of the Christian church,Kristna kyrkans historia},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {248},
  publisher    = {Lunds universitets kyrkohistoriska arkiv},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Bibliotheca Historico-Ecclesiastica Lundensis},
  title        = {Glömda gudstecken : från fornkyrklig dopliturgi till allmogens bomärken},
  volume       = {45},
  year         = {2003},
}