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Lojaliteten, prostarna, språket : studier i den kyrkliga "försvenskningen" i Lunds stift under 1680-talet

Alenäs, Stig LU (2003) In Bibliotheca Historico-Ecclesiastica Lundensis 46.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

För att få svar på frågan om prostarnas lojalitet i samband med ”försvenskningen” av Lunds stift på 1680-talet, har jag använt lokalt material såsom räkenskaper och längder. Jämfört med den tidigare forskningen har mer preciserade och delvis annorlunda resultat presenterats, både vad gäller prostarnas lojalitet och ”försvenskningens” intensitet. Prostarna var ambivalenta och tveksamma till uniformitetens införande. Myndigheternas tydliga och oeftergivliga krav var de tvungna att rätta sig efter, men på lokalplanet, i förhållanden som var mer okontrollerbara, tog prostarna ofta befolkningens parti gentemot myndigheterna. I det uppenbara stödde prostarna uniformitetsarbetet, men i det fördolda var... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

För att få svar på frågan om prostarnas lojalitet i samband med ”försvenskningen” av Lunds stift på 1680-talet, har jag använt lokalt material såsom räkenskaper och längder. Jämfört med den tidigare forskningen har mer preciserade och delvis annorlunda resultat presenterats, både vad gäller prostarnas lojalitet och ”försvenskningens” intensitet. Prostarna var ambivalenta och tveksamma till uniformitetens införande. Myndigheternas tydliga och oeftergivliga krav var de tvungna att rätta sig efter, men på lokalplanet, i förhållanden som var mer okontrollerbara, tog prostarna ofta befolkningens parti gentemot myndigheterna. I det uppenbara stödde prostarna uniformitetsarbetet, men i det fördolda var många så försumliga att det måste betecknas som obstruktion.



Prostarna var lojala endast när så krävdes. I sina egna kontrakt gjorde de ofta som de själva ville. Nya komprometterande uppgifter har kommit fram om prostarna. Gemzaeus förändrade plötsligt sitt skriftspråk, Patersen tog hand om en dansk bibel och Rhode tände altarljus. Lokalsamhället protesterade när någon ovanifrån ville bestämma över församlingens sätt att fira gudstjänst och markerade sin självständighet mot styrning från biskop och regionala myndigheter. I de konflikter som uppstod fick prostarna ta på sig rollen som medlare mellan lokal- och regionalplan.



Prostarna stod mitt emellan lokalt och regionalt och tvingades ofta ta ställning för endera sidan. De kunde vara lojala antingen ”uppåt” eller ”nedåt.” Enligt den teokratiska synen på överheten var de skyldiga att följa den överhet som Gud hade satt till att härska och bevisa den pliktskyldig lydnad. Om överheten var svensk eller dansk spelade mindre roll – det var samma lydnad som ålåg en undersåte. Det stötte inte på några ideologiska hinder att byta överhet. Kungen skulle åtlydas och fungerade som en garant för rätten, antingen han var dansk eller svensk.



I mitten av 1680-talet hade ”försvenskningen” i stort sett kommit halvvägs mot en fullständig integration. Hälften av församlingarna hade skaffat svenska gudstjänstböcker, hälften betalade sina vaxljusmedel, hälften av klockarna arbetade utan försummelser med svenskundervisningen. Folkundervisningen var i ett expansivt skede med en kraftig ökning av antalet undervisade och över hälften av de danskspråkiga prostarna skrev svenska till biskopen. Att kyrkoseder och gudstjänstbruk integrerats till hälften i mitten av 1680-talet blir ett mått på ”försvenskningens” intensitet. Under andra hälften av 1680-talet avmattades integreringen och många gamla kyrkoseder och gudstjänstbruk fanns kvar in på 1700-talet. (Less)
Abstract
After the Peace of Roskilde in 1658, the territory that Sweden had acquired was to be incorporated into the rest of the country. A 'Swedification' of the church and the services did not begin until 1680, when a new bishop took up his duties in the Lund diocese. Previous research has been concentrated around the events on the national and diocese levels. The aim of this study is to use more local material to elucidate what the rural church deans did. Swedish books were disseminated to the parishes in the beginning of the 1680's. In 1683 half of the deaneries had acquired Swedish service books. Danish books could still be found a bit into the 18th century. In the Swedish liturgy, it was not permitted to use wax candles on church altars and... (More)
After the Peace of Roskilde in 1658, the territory that Sweden had acquired was to be incorporated into the rest of the country. A 'Swedification' of the church and the services did not begin until 1680, when a new bishop took up his duties in the Lund diocese. Previous research has been concentrated around the events on the national and diocese levels. The aim of this study is to use more local material to elucidate what the rural church deans did. Swedish books were disseminated to the parishes in the beginning of the 1680's. In 1683 half of the deaneries had acquired Swedish service books. Danish books could still be found a bit into the 18th century. In the Swedish liturgy, it was not permitted to use wax candles on church altars and the bishop ordered the removal of wax candles. The use of wax candles did not disappear immediately. On the contrary, they continued in use in some parishes during the 1680's. The rural deans allowed the continued use of these candles. Study meetings were held in the churches after the services . Young people were gathered to learn the Swedish catechism. Since the majority of the people refused to go the teaching, the authorities created a system of fines for the miscreants. The fine lists are preserved and these lists show that many ministers and half of the parish clerks were negligent in teaching Swedish. Some of the deans also refused to fine the people for missing study meetings. Catechism training was done by the parish clerks, whose duties were to teach children to read Swedish. There are preserved records from the 1680's, listing the number of children and their levels of knowledge. In general the lists reflect the great increase of the number of children who were instructed in the beginning of the decade as well as the stagnation at its end. In 1683 it was decided that the ministers were to preach in Swedish. The ministers who spoke Danish had difficulties with this. Many deans changed their written language in 1681 or 1683, when they were threatened with dismissal from their positions if they were not loyal to the authorities. Swedification was accepted in varying degrees in the rural deaneries. In the middle of the 1680's, half of the parishes had acquired Swedish ser vice books, but half of the parish clerks were still disloyal. The deans were key figures in the Swedification process. They were overtly loyal to the bishop and the authorities, but covertly evidenced a disloyalty which bordered on obstruction (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Museichef Bergström, Carin, Skokloster
organization
alternative title
Loyalty, Rural Deans, Language : Studies of 'Swedification' in the Church in the Lund Diocese during the 1680's
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Lund Diocese, catechism lists, study meetings, Scania, parish clerks, wax candles, catachism, disloyalty, loyalty, literacy, rural deans, language, swedification, Integration, incorporation, History of the Christian church, Kristna kyrkans historia
in
Bibliotheca Historico-Ecclesiastica Lundensis
volume
46
pages
239 pages
publisher
Lunds universitets kyrkohistoriska arkiv
defense location
Carolinasalen, Kungshuset, Lundagård
defense date
2004-01-19 13:15
ISSN
0346-5438
ISBN
91-89515-08-0
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
0917a7f2-ee5d-4cc1-aa76-82fcd767733d (old id 21234)
date added to LUP
2007-05-25 14:24:59
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:57
@phdthesis{0917a7f2-ee5d-4cc1-aa76-82fcd767733d,
  abstract     = {After the Peace of Roskilde in 1658, the territory that Sweden had acquired was to be incorporated into the rest of the country. A 'Swedification' of the church and the services did not begin until 1680, when a new bishop took up his duties in the Lund diocese. Previous research has been concentrated around the events on the national and diocese levels. The aim of this study is to use more local material to elucidate what the rural church deans did. Swedish books were disseminated to the parishes in the beginning of the 1680's. In 1683 half of the deaneries had acquired Swedish service books. Danish books could still be found a bit into the 18th century. In the Swedish liturgy, it was not permitted to use wax candles on church altars and the bishop ordered the removal of wax candles. The use of wax candles did not disappear immediately. On the contrary, they continued in use in some parishes during the 1680's. The rural deans allowed the continued use of these candles. Study meetings were held in the churches after the services . Young people were gathered to learn the Swedish catechism. Since the majority of the people refused to go the teaching, the authorities created a system of fines for the miscreants. The fine lists are preserved and these lists show that many ministers and half of the parish clerks were negligent in teaching Swedish. Some of the deans also refused to fine the people for missing study meetings. Catechism training was done by the parish clerks, whose duties were to teach children to read Swedish. There are preserved records from the 1680's, listing the number of children and their levels of knowledge. In general the lists reflect the great increase of the number of children who were instructed in the beginning of the decade as well as the stagnation at its end. In 1683 it was decided that the ministers were to preach in Swedish. The ministers who spoke Danish had difficulties with this. Many deans changed their written language in 1681 or 1683, when they were threatened with dismissal from their positions if they were not loyal to the authorities. Swedification was accepted in varying degrees in the rural deaneries. In the middle of the 1680's, half of the parishes had acquired Swedish ser vice books, but half of the parish clerks were still disloyal. The deans were key figures in the Swedification process. They were overtly loyal to the bishop and the authorities, but covertly evidenced a disloyalty which bordered on obstruction},
  author       = {Alenäs, Stig},
  isbn         = {91-89515-08-0},
  issn         = {0346-5438},
  keyword      = {Lund Diocese,catechism lists,study meetings,Scania,parish clerks,wax candles,catachism,disloyalty,loyalty,literacy,rural deans,language,swedification,Integration,incorporation,History of the Christian church,Kristna kyrkans historia},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {239},
  publisher    = {Lunds universitets kyrkohistoriska arkiv},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Bibliotheca Historico-Ecclesiastica Lundensis},
  title        = {Lojaliteten, prostarna, språket : studier i den kyrkliga "försvenskningen" i Lunds stift under 1680-talet},
  volume       = {46},
  year         = {2003},
}