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Och de skall vara ett hjärta : konsensusdoktrinen i medeltida kanonisk rätt

Christensen-Nugues, Charlotte LU (2003) In Ugglan, Minervaserien 7.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Under 1100-talet utvecklades inom kanonisk rätt principen att makarnas samtycke är tillräckligt för att skapa ett giltigt äktenskap. Varken familj eller andra auktoriteter, inte ens kyrkliga, hade laglig bestämmanderätt över två personers giftermål. Denna lagstiftning stod i konflikt med det sekulära samhällets uppfattning av äktenskapet och även i vissa fall med kyrkans institutionella intressen. Konsensusdoktrinen innebar en revolution i synen på äktenskapet och påverkade praktiskt taget alla samhällsgrupper. Vid en första anblick tycks den häpnadsväckande modern men de underliggande idéerna visar på föreställningar som ligger långt ifrån moderna tänkesätt. Att dessa föreställningar nu kan... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Under 1100-talet utvecklades inom kanonisk rätt principen att makarnas samtycke är tillräckligt för att skapa ett giltigt äktenskap. Varken familj eller andra auktoriteter, inte ens kyrkliga, hade laglig bestämmanderätt över två personers giftermål. Denna lagstiftning stod i konflikt med det sekulära samhällets uppfattning av äktenskapet och även i vissa fall med kyrkans institutionella intressen. Konsensusdoktrinen innebar en revolution i synen på äktenskapet och påverkade praktiskt taget alla samhällsgrupper. Vid en första anblick tycks den häpnadsväckande modern men de underliggande idéerna visar på föreställningar som ligger långt ifrån moderna tänkesätt. Att dessa föreställningar nu kan tyckas främmande bör inte leda till att man underskattar dess faktiska betydelse, även ur ett nutida perspektiv. De gav upphov till ett av de grundläggande dragen i den västerländska äktenskapsmodellen - individens rätt att gifta sig om, när och med vem han eller hon vill. Föreliggande studie behandlar interaktionen mellan sakramentsdoktrin och äktenskapslagstiftning, mer specifikt sambandet mellan den asketiska traditionen inom kyrkan och konsensusdoktrinen. Flera forskare har hävdat att det medeltida katolska kyskhetsidealet var oförenligt med idén om äktenskaplig kärlek. I själva verket var kyskhetsidealet en förutsättning för en mer andlig definition av äktenskapet som satte makarnas känslomässiga relation i centrum. Som Hugo av Saint-Victor uttryckte det; makarna skall inte endast vara ett kött, utan, framför allt, ett hjärta. Vid 1100-talets slut var konsensusdoktrinen fast etablerad i teorin. En annan fråga är om och hur den tillämpades i verkligheten och, inte minst, hur den uppfattades av lekmännen. För att svara på dessa frågor har jag studerat ett rättegångsregister från den kyrkliga domstolen i Cerisy (Normandiet) för perioden 1314-1346. Det ömsesidiga samtyckets betydelse framträder mycket tydligt i äktenskapsmålen. Varken familjens önskemål, de inblandade personernas rykte och vandel (t. ex. om de tidigare hade dömts för skörlevnad av samma domstol) eller ens frågan om huruvida de hade barn, och i så fall med vem, verkar ha påverkat domsluten i någon högre grad. Det enda återkommande argumentet är frågan om huruvida parterna utväxlat ömsesidigt samtycke eller ej. En annan viktig aspekt i registret är lekmännens kunskaper om kanonisk rätt, även i dess mer komplicerade aspekter. Rättegångsregistret från Cerisy visar inte endast hur den kanoniska rättens äktenskapslagstiftning tillämpades lokalt, utan även att den hade blivit en integrerad del i den normandiska landsortsbefolkningens liv och att lekmännen inte tvekade att använda reglerna för sina egna syften. (Less)
Abstract
One of the most important aspects of the marriage legislation in medieval canon law is the doctrine of free choice. According to this doctrine, established by pope Alexander III in the second half of the twelfth century, the validity of a marriage depended solely on the freely given consent of the parties. Neither family nor witnesses, not even the presence of a priest were necessary to form a valid marriage. The consensualist doctrine revolutionized the very conception of marriage and had important consequences for practically all layers of society. At a first glance, it seems astonishingly modern but a study of the underlying theories shows that it was founded on very different, and apparently, non-modern ideas. That these ideas can seem... (More)
One of the most important aspects of the marriage legislation in medieval canon law is the doctrine of free choice. According to this doctrine, established by pope Alexander III in the second half of the twelfth century, the validity of a marriage depended solely on the freely given consent of the parties. Neither family nor witnesses, not even the presence of a priest were necessary to form a valid marriage. The consensualist doctrine revolutionized the very conception of marriage and had important consequences for practically all layers of society. At a first glance, it seems astonishingly modern but a study of the underlying theories shows that it was founded on very different, and apparently, non-modern ideas. That these ideas can seem foreign to us should not lead to an underestimation of their actual importance, even from a modern perspective. They gave rise to one of the most fundamental aspects in the western marriage model – the individuals right to marry if, when, and with whomever he or she chooses. This study focuses on the interaction between sacramental theory and marriage legislation, more specifically, the connection between the ascetic tradition within the Church and the consensualist doctrine. Paradoxically, it was to a large extent the ascetic tradition that prompted a personalistic definition of marriage as depending primarily on the personal feelings and aspirations of the spouses. This idea of marriage was the foundation of the consensualist doctrine. Several authors have argued that the ideal of chastity in the medieval Church was incompatible with the idea of married love. This could seem like a common sense argument but in reality the ideal of chastity was a prerequisite for a more spiritual definition of marriage where the emotional relationship between the spouses was emphasized. As Hugh of Saint-Victor puts it, the spouses should not only become one flesh, but, above all, one heart. At the end of the twelfth century, the consensualist doctrine was firmly established in theory. Another question is if and how it was applied in reality and, not least, how the lay population perceived it. To answer these questions, I have studied a register from the Officials’ Court at Cerisy, Normandy, during the period 1314-1346. The importance of consent appears very clearly in the marriage litigation. Neither the family’s wishes nor the persons’ reputation (if, for example, they had previously been fined for fornication by the same Court) not even if and with whom the involved parties had children seem to have had any real bearing on the Courts rulings in these cases. Another important aspect in the register is the extent of the lay population’s knowledge of canon law, even in its more complicated aspects. The register from Cerisy not only shows how the marriage legislation in canon law was applied by the Court, but also that it had become an integrated part of rural society in fourteenth century Normandy. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Prof. Bagge, Sverre, University of Bergen, Norway
organization
alternative title
And They Become One Heart : The Consensualist Doctrine in Medieval Canon Law
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
history of ideas, History of philosophy, Normandy, Cerisy, asceticism, individualism, sacrament, consensualism, canon law, Marriage, middle ages, Filosofins historia, idéhistoria, Medieval history, Medeltidens historia
in
Ugglan, Minervaserien
volume
7
pages
300 pages
publisher
History of Science and Ideas
defense location
Department of Cultural Sciences, room 201
defense date
2003-09-12 10:15
ISSN
1650-7339
ISBN
91-974153-6-7
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
281c916a-1edd-4928-891e-bb730325485e (old id 21341)
date added to LUP
2007-05-28 14:52:39
date last changed
2018-05-29 10:19:01
@phdthesis{281c916a-1edd-4928-891e-bb730325485e,
  abstract     = {One of the most important aspects of the marriage legislation in medieval canon law is the doctrine of free choice. According to this doctrine, established by pope Alexander III in the second half of the twelfth century, the validity of a marriage depended solely on the freely given consent of the parties. Neither family nor witnesses, not even the presence of a priest were necessary to form a valid marriage. The consensualist doctrine revolutionized the very conception of marriage and had important consequences for practically all layers of society. At a first glance, it seems astonishingly modern but a study of the underlying theories shows that it was founded on very different, and apparently, non-modern ideas. That these ideas can seem foreign to us should not lead to an underestimation of their actual importance, even from a modern perspective. They gave rise to one of the most fundamental aspects in the western marriage model – the individuals right to marry if, when, and with whomever he or she chooses. This study focuses on the interaction between sacramental theory and marriage legislation, more specifically, the connection between the ascetic tradition within the Church and the consensualist doctrine. Paradoxically, it was to a large extent the ascetic tradition that prompted a personalistic definition of marriage as depending primarily on the personal feelings and aspirations of the spouses. This idea of marriage was the foundation of the consensualist doctrine. Several authors have argued that the ideal of chastity in the medieval Church was incompatible with the idea of married love. This could seem like a common sense argument but in reality the ideal of chastity was a prerequisite for a more spiritual definition of marriage where the emotional relationship between the spouses was emphasized. As Hugh of Saint-Victor puts it, the spouses should not only become one flesh, but, above all, one heart. At the end of the twelfth century, the consensualist doctrine was firmly established in theory. Another question is if and how it was applied in reality and, not least, how the lay population perceived it. To answer these questions, I have studied a register from the Officials’ Court at Cerisy, Normandy, during the period 1314-1346. The importance of consent appears very clearly in the marriage litigation. Neither the family’s wishes nor the persons’ reputation (if, for example, they had previously been fined for fornication by the same Court) not even if and with whom the involved parties had children seem to have had any real bearing on the Courts rulings in these cases. Another important aspect in the register is the extent of the lay population’s knowledge of canon law, even in its more complicated aspects. The register from Cerisy not only shows how the marriage legislation in canon law was applied by the Court, but also that it had become an integrated part of rural society in fourteenth century Normandy.},
  author       = {Christensen-Nugues, Charlotte},
  isbn         = {91-974153-6-7},
  issn         = {1650-7339},
  keyword      = {history of ideas,History of philosophy,Normandy,Cerisy,asceticism,individualism,sacrament,consensualism,canon law,Marriage,middle ages,Filosofins historia,idéhistoria,Medieval history,Medeltidens historia},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {300},
  publisher    = {History of Science and Ideas},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Ugglan, Minervaserien},
  title        = {Och de skall vara ett hjärta : konsensusdoktrinen i medeltida kanonisk rätt},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2003},
}